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Enhancing the Student Experience in Online Sport Management Programs: A Review of the Community of Inquiry Framework

J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill

Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.

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Online Learning in Sport Management Education: Guest Editors’ Introduction

John Miller and David Pierce

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Pedagogical Innovations for the Millennial Sport Management Student: Socrative and Twitter

R. Douglas Manning, Margaret C. Keiper, and Seth E. Jenny

Pedagogical innovation involving smartphone technology paired with complementary applications may offer sport management faculty the opportunity to create an environment of engaging instruction. Technologically enhanced and innovative assignments have the potential to stimulate student interest and critical-thinking skills by presenting new experiences and active learning opportunities via participatory education. Through the discussion of technology integration and pedagogical innovation when teaching millennial students, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework—namely, the concerns-based adoption model (CBAM)—to introduce mobile technologies, such as Socrative and Twitter, into the sport management classroom.

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Student Perceptions of Video Communication in an Online Sport and Recreation Studies Graduate Course

Christopher Atwater, Jered Borup, Robert Baker, and Richard E. West

This qualitative case study examined student perceptions of video communication with their instructor in an online research and writing course for sport and recreation graduate students. All students participated in two personalized Skype video calls with the instructor and received two video and text feedback critiques of their written projects. Eight students were interviewed following the course. Despite minor technological and scheduling concerns, students found that their Skype calls helped form a relationship with their instructor and improved their confidence in the course. Students found that video feedback recordings on their written projects were elaborate and friendly, while text feedback comments tended to be more convenient, efficient, and concise. However, all students reported that the advantages of video feedback outweighed the advantages of text. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and for online instructors who wish to effectively blend these forms of communication.

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Understanding the Challenges and Opportunities Associated With Online Learning: A Scaffolding Theory Approach

Jillian McNiff and Thomas J. Aicher

In 2013, approximately 5.3 million students took an online course in the United States—a 3.7% increase, when compared with 2012. This growth in e-learning may impact sport participation and the educational experience of student-athletes. This change creates various challenges and opportunities for those who support student-athletes’ educational development. Therefore, using the zone for proximal development and scaffolding theory, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the role student-athlete support services staff play in ensuring the effectiveness and quality of e-learning, and to identify strategies and best practices associated with e-learning. Qualitative interviews were conducted with directors of student-athlete support service organizations within Division I athletics. Results of the analysis engendered three central themes: (a) faculty relations, (b) lack of formal assessment, and (c) educational opportunities. The results aligned with the tenets of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding theory. In addition, a framework to assist student-athletes’ development is presented.

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Use of Animated Pedagogical Agent in Sport Management Education: Effect on Students’ Situational Interest

Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner, and Jeeheon Ryu

The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.

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Volume 11 (2017): Issue 1 (Jan 2017)

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Experiential Learning: Impacting Student Lateral and Vertical Development

Mark A. McDonald and Kirsty Spence

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Exploring Student Perceptions of Sales: A Case Study of a Sport-Sales Course

Liz A. Sattler and Clinton Warren

Sales pedagogy and student perceptions of sales have long been studied in business programs across college campuses. While sales pedagogy is a growing content area for sport management programs, it continues to be an area in the field in need of further understanding. The purpose of this study was to explore student perceptions of sales throughout a 16-week course. A qualitative case study methodology was used to develop a rich description of how sport management students perceive sales as a content area, and as a potential profession in the sport industry. Analysis of the themes indicates that throughout the course of the semester, students developed more holistic perceptions of sales, viewed sales as a necessary skill for many jobs in the sport industry, and were more open to a sales job as an entryway into the sport industry.

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Internship Characteristics, Critical Events, and Intent to Enter the Vocation

Michael Odio and Shannon Kerwin

The senior internship is a critical developmental experience for sport management students transitioning into their careers. Despite the internship’s role as a career development tool, previous research has suggested that the experience may deter students from continuing to pursue a career in the sports industry (Cunningham, Sagas, Dixon, Turner, & Kent, 2005). The present study uses decision-making theory and a longitudinal approach to improve on previous efforts to examine changes in students’ affective commitment to the vocation and intent to pursue a career in the vocation as a result of the internship experience. Results of the structural model show that challenge, supervisor support, and role conflict significantly influence students’ career decision making.