Clinical Question: Does reactive neuromuscular training (RNT) increase gluteal muscle activation during squatting movements? Clinical Bottom Line: The current best evidence suggests RNT may result in acute increases of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscle activation when performing the barbell back squat exercise; however, the findings were inconsistent and unclear for other types of squatting movements. Grades B and D evidence exists on the effects of RNT to increase gluteus maximus and medius muscle activation, respectively, during squatting movements. Given the methodological differences and mixed findings reported in this critically appraised topic, practitioners should carefully consider whether using RNT would be appropriate for a given clinical scenario.
Does Reactive Neuromuscular Training Increase Gluteal Musculature Activation During Squatting Movements? A Critically Appraised Topic
Ian Brewer, Josh Zimmerman, Marcie Fyock-Martin, Nelson Cortes, and Joel Martin
Clinical Decision Making in Athletic Training
Russell L. Muir
Athletic trainers frequently make decisions under uncertain conditions leading to the use of decisional shortcuts (heuristics). Heuristics can be useful decisional tools, but their use gives rise to predictable cognitive errors (cognitive bias), which can lead to diagnostic and injury management errors. This study assessed athletic trainers’ understanding of these topics and explored their presence in athletic training education. Few participants were taught about heuristics (11.6%) and cognitive bias (24.1%), although those taught about heuristics demonstrated greater understanding of both topics. To improve clinical efficacy and patient outcomes, athletic trainers should seek educational opportunities related to heuristics and cognitive bias.
Kinesio Taping Versus Athletic Taping in Managing Chronic Golfer’s Elbow in Male Athletes
Asmaa F. Abdelmonem, Mariam A. Ameer, Karim Ghuiba, and Ammar M. Al Abbad
Medial epicondylalgia is a repetitive stress condition. The aim of this study was to assess whether Kinesio taping offers any superiority over athletic taping for chronic medial epicondylalgia management. The results show statistically significant differences in isokinetic and patient self-reported variables between each group: (a) Group A: Kinesio tape with rehabilitation; (b) Group B: athletic taping with rehabilitation; and (c) group C: only rehabilitation. Although no significant differences in preintervention group assessments (p > .05) were found, only Group (A) showed statistically significant posttreatment improvements. Kinesio taping over athletic taping appears effective for treating chronic medial epicondylalgia and facilitating pain reduction and isokinetic improvements.
NATA News & Notes
Survey of National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletic Trainers’ Administration of the National Wrestling Coaches Association Weight Certification Program
Samuel L. Konrath and Dale R. Wagner
Despite implementation in 1997, published research detailing the administration of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s minimum weight certification program is lacking. This survey aimed to determine how athletic trainers administer this program. Thirty-five of 77 (45.5% response rate) athletic trainers for National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I wrestling programs responded. Most (74.3%) had ≥5 years of experience measuring body composition, and nearly all (97.1%) used skinfold calipers. Caliper type varied, but everyone used the same measurement sites and procedure to estimate minimal weight. There appears to be consistency in the administration of minimal wrestling weight standards across National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I programs.
Use of the Alvarado Score for Assessment of Abdominal Pain in a Women’s Soccer Player
The Alvarado score is used in emergency rooms to determine probability of appendicitis and provide a recommendation for care. A women’s soccer player presented to the athletic training clinic with right lower quadrant pain. She was evaluated and due to a differential diagnosis of appendicitis, the Alvarado score was used for screening. Based on her score, she was referred to the emergency room and, after diagnostic testing, was found to have a ruptured ovarian cyst. The Alvarado score was helpful in determining the need for referral when used in the clinical setting.
Benefits and Barriers Associated With Intention to Participate in Injury Prevention Programs in Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Cadets
Emily H. Gabriel and Cameron J. Powden
Identification of factors which may influence participation in exercise-related injury prevention programs within Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) cadets is an important step in improving adoption and adherence rates. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with intention to participate in an exercise-related injury prevention program within ROTC cadets. Theory of planned behavior scale perceived benefits (B = 3.65, η2 = .36, p = .001) and Health Belief Model Scale perceived benefits (B = 3.46, η2 = .31, p = .01) had a large positive association with intention to participate. Theory of planned behavior scale perceived barriers (B = −2.28, η2 = .37, p = .001) had a large negative association with intention to participate. Implementation strategies for exercise-related injury prevention programs may need to focus on the benefits and barriers of participation to increase adoption and adherence.
Burnout in Secondary School Athletic Trainers, Part I: Correlations With Situational Variables
Leslie W. Oglesby, Andrew R. Gallucci, Anna K. Porter, and Ashlyne P. Elliott
Burnout is a psychological syndrome that is found at higher rates in health care professionals, including athletic trainers. Situational variables such as social support, salary, work–family conflict, and workload have been associated with burnout in collegiate athletic trainers. The purpose of this study was to see whether such relationships exist within a sample of secondary school athletic trainers. Analyses suggest that increases in work–family conflict and decreases in social support were significantly correlated with increased burnout in our sample. These findings suggest that modification of work–life balance and support network are more important in combating burnout than modification of workload or salary.
Reliability and Validity of the Clinometer™ Smartphone Application for Measuring Knee Flexion
Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Russell T. Baker, Jayme Baker, and Samantha Hanna
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Clinometer™ smartphone application. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated for devices (i.e., goniometer, Clinometer™, bubble inclinometer) using intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer™ validity were also assessed. Intrarater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficients = .70 − .83) and interrater reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = .63 − .72) across devices. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer™ validity were supported across analyses. The Clinometer™ is comparable to a goniometer or bubble inclinometer for measuring prone knee flexion.