Intersectionality is a structure that analyzes how a person’s social and political identities intertwine creating different ways in which privilege and discrimination manifest. It examines the individual experiences and opportunities in everyday life. The following special issue musings describe the systems that have marginalized a woman of intersectional identity despite an extensive diverse professional career across national borders. Written through a lens of a diverse professional identity and a personal intertwined identity, these reflection musings highlight the author’s lack of visibility, fatigue, and struggle for belonging in a field and wider society that she perceives to have been exclusive and unwelcoming.
Carolina Paixão, Sara Oliveira, and Cláudia Ferreira
This study explored the differences in shame, perception of performance, the need to present a perfect body image, and disordered eating among 223 female athletes from esthetic (n = 114; M age = 14.30; SD age = 1.65; M yearsofpractice = 6.62) and nonesthetic (n = 109; M age = 14.75; SD age = 1.87; M yearsofpractice = 4.56) individual sports. Descriptive, t test, and correlational analyses were performed. Moreover, path analyses were conducted to examine the link between the variables. The two groups did not present significant differences in variables, except in perception of performance. The path model analyses explained 47% of disordered eating. Results suggested that individual characteristic of sports practice seems relevant in shame. This study suggests that female athletes from individual sports who experience inferiority tend to adopt perfectionist defensive strategies and engage in disordered eating behaviors. This study highlights the relevance of intervention and educational programs that promote more adaptative emotional regulation strategies in female athletes from individual sports.
Ivonne H.F. Duiser, Annick Ledebt, John van der Kamp, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh
We examined the effects of number of and separation between support lines on handwriting characteristics of primary school students with satisfactory and unsatisfactory handwriting. Students (mean age 7.9 years) copied a text on paper with a baseline and with two or four support lines with a separation of 3 or 4 mm between the central lines. Handwriting size, velocity, and smoothness were determined for the four conditions relative to baseline. Children with unsatisfactory handwriting wrote larger and had more lifts during baseline condition. Writing between support lines, especially with small separation, immediately reduced the size of handwriting, but also adversely affected velocity and smoothness. Future research is needed to assess long-term effects.
Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Hugo Sarmento, Sixto González-Víllora, Juan Carlos Pastor-Vicedo, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, and Filipe Manuel Clemente
This study analyzed the effects of with (WC) or without conducting a warm up on youth soccer players immediately before performing physical and cognitive tests. Fourteen youth soccer player (age 11.64 ± 0.50) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal condition; (b) WC (immediately before the physical and cognitive tests); and (c) without WC (passive resting for 15 min between the warm-up and physical and cognitive tests). A 30-m sprint test, countermovement jump, and psychomotor vigilance task were also applied. The WC revealed significant improvements in countermovement jump (p < .05), 30-m sprint test performance (p < .05), and reaction time in psychomotor vigilance task (p < .05) in comparison to basal lineal condition and without WC. A 15-min rest after a warm-up has a meaningfully decremental effect on the physical and cognitive readiness of youth soccer players, in comparison with when they warm-up immediately before the demands are imposed.
Matthew J. Solomito, Andrew D. Cohen, Erin J. Garibay, and Carl W. Nissen
The instant of foot contact is an important transition point during the pitch cycle between the linear portion of the pitch, as a pitcher strides down the mound and the rotational portion of the pitch. Understanding the implications of lead foot angle at foot contact is an essential information needed to assist pitching coaches in their work with individual pitchers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association between lead foot progression angle at foot contact and ball velocity, elbow varus moment, and pelvic rotation. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 99 collegiate pitchers and analyzed using a random intercept, mixed-effects regression model. Significant associations were found between lead foot progression angle at foot contact and elbow varus moment (P = .004), as well as pelvic rotation throughout the pitching motion (P < .001). The data indicate that increased lead foot internal rotation at foot contact is associated with increases in the elbow varus moment but is not associated with ball velocity. This study provides scientific evidence that the rotational positioning of the lead foot can affect both pelvic motion and upper-extremity joint moments.
Alireza Alizadeh, Amir Salar Jafarpisheh, Maryam Mohammadi, and Amir H. Kahlaee
Sensory reweighting of postural control was compared in participants with and without neck pain. Center of pressure variables of 60 volunteers, the same in each group, were calculated under four standing conditions: (a) eyes open, neutral head posture; (b) foam interface, eyes open; (c) cervical extension, eyes open; and (d) cervical extension, eyes closed. All center of pressure variables except anterior posterior range/velocity increased significantly in Condition 2 compared with Conditions 1 and 3 (p < .001) and in Condition 4 compared with Conditions 1 and 3. The mediolateral range/velocity and path length in both groups, anterior posterior range in patients, and center of pressure area in the control group were significantly different between Conditions 2 and 4 (p < .001). No overweighting was observed on the vestibular or visual afferents in patients. Compensatory strategies seem to lie within the proprioceptive system.
Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota
This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.