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Miguel A. De la Cámara, Ana I. Pardos-Sevilla, Augusto Jiménez-Fuente, Thamara Hubler-Figueiró, Eleonora d’Orsi, and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

The aim of this study was to examine, theoretically, how reallocating time between the intensity of mutually exclusive categories of physical activity and sedentary behavior time is associated with metabolic syndrome. Four hundred and six older adults (61.6% women) from the second wave of the EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study were included in the study (mean age 71.7 ± 5.9 years). Isotemporal substitution analysis showed a decrease of 35% (odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [0.45, 0.96]) in the risk for metabolic syndrome when replacing 30 min/day of sedentary behavior with an equivalent amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Furthermore, it has been observed that older adults classified as low sedentary behavior and physically active were 57% less likely to have metabolic syndrome than participants classified as high sedentary and physically inactive (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% confidence interval [0.19, 0.97]). This study highlights the importance of behavioral categories that may emerge concerning the interrelationships of physical activity and health in older adults, having important implications for future health intervention programs.

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Marina Christofoletti, Paula F. Sandreschi, Sofia W. Manta, Susana C. Confortin, Rodrigo S. Delevatti, Eleonora D’Orsi, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Cassiano R. Rech, and Thiago S. Matias

This study described the clustering patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time (ST) according to handgrip strength and investigated the association between identified clusters of fat and lean mass in older adults from southern Brazil. Objective measures were used for moderate to vigorous physical activity, ST, and body composition outcomes. Two-step cluster and linear regression analyses were conducted according to handgrip strength. Three clusters were identified: all-day sitters, sitters, and active sitters. The prevalence of clusters in the low-strength group was 58.2%, 22.8%, and 19.0%, respectively, while the prevalence of clusters in the high-strength group was 42.1%, 34.8%, and 23.1%, respectively. All-day sitters had 2.6% more fat mass than active sitters with low strength. High levels of ST characterized all cluster profiles; low strength, lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and high ST levels among older adults may indicate a subpopulation at a greater risk of overweight and obesity-related diseases.

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Samira Javadpour, Ehsan Sinaei, Reza Salehi, Shahla Zahednejad, and Alireza Motealleh

To compare the effects of single- versus dual-task balance training on the gait smoothness and balance of community-dwelling older adults, 69 volunteers were randomized to single-, dual-task training, and control (no intervention) groups. Exercises were received in 18 sessions through 6 weeks. The gait smoothness was measured by the harmonic ratio of trunk accelerations using a triaxial accelerometer. Balance performance was assessed through the Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, Timed Up and Go test, Activities-specific Balance Confidence, and gait speed. After the trial, all variables improved significantly in the training groups. Moreover, differences in the mean change of all variables, except the Timed Up and Go test, were statistically significant between the interventional groups and the control group, but no significant difference was reported between the two training groups. This study suggests that balance training can improve gait smoothness as well as balance status in healthy older adults.

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Gareth Thompson, Gareth W. Davison, Jacqui Crawford, and Ciara M. Hughes

Sirtuin-1 is a protein that may orchestrate the cardioprotective effect of exercise by controlling cellular processes. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of performing a quasi-experimental study in this area. Patients with postacute myocardial infarction were recruited across four hospital sites in the United Kingdom. The participants were offered one weekly exercise session at Phase-III and Phase-IV cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Measurements were obtained pre-Phase-III CR (Week 1), post-Phase-III CR (Week 8), and post-Phase-IV CR (Week 22). Twenty-eight patients were recruited (79% male, 100% White, 60.2 ± 10.5 years old). The recruitment rate was not fulfilled (<70% eligible patients recruited; 0.9 participants recruited per week over 30 weeks). The success criteria for dropout rate, adherence rate, and collection of sirtuin-1 measures were satisfied. A large increase in sirtuin-1 (0.14 ± 0.03, d ≥ 0.8) was seen after Phase-III and Phase-IV CR. Collectively, a quasi-experimental study is feasible with a revised recruitment strategy.

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Andrew Dix

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the in-game communication of football players from historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) was excessively penalized in the field of play. Previous literature has found that referee bias is commonplace and uncovered evidence that referees socially judge the communicative behaviors of HBCU student athletes differently than the communicative behaviors of student athletes from predominantly White institutions. This led to social judgment theory emerging as the theoretical frame. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze National Collegiate Athletic Association data for Division II college football. Findings revealed that referees disproportionately flagged football teams from HBCUs in comparison with predominantly White institutions. These results provide implications for theory. The uncovered results also support a well-developed line of communication research that has indicated that excessive penalties are levied against HBCU teams in multiple sports. A rhetorical call to action is made to facilitate officiating change in intercollegiate athletics.

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Tal Gafni, Kerem Shuval, Galit Weinstein, Carolyn E. Barlow, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Benjamin L. Willis, David Leonard, William L. Haskell, and Laura F. DeFina

This study cross-sectionally examines the relations of sitting and physical activity (PA) with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling adults aged 55–87 years (n = 3,780). Multivariable logistic regression assessed independent and joint relations of sitting and PA with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores adjusting for covariates. Sitting ≥75% of the time and not meeting PA guidelines were related to 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.19, 2.17]) and 27% (95% CI [1.06, 1.53]) higher odds for cognitive impairment, respectively. Stratification by age showed that sitting ≥75% of the time was associated with higher cognitive impairment odds in midlife (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% CI [1.31, 2.65]), but not older adults (OR = 1.06; 95% CI [0.57, 1.95]). Joint association analysis revealed that, overall, the highest odds for cognitive impairment were in those sitting ≥75% of the time while meeting or not meeting PA guidelines (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.13, 2.53]; and OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.19, 2.32], respectively). In conclusion, prolonged sitting and insufficient PA are independent risk markers for cognitive impairment.

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NaRi Shin and Jon Welty Peachey

In this study, the authors sought to understand the influence of the Olympic Games on a host community’s globalization and development using world-systems theory and theories of globalization (i.e., glocalization and grobalization). The host community for the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics (Daegwallyeong-myeon in South Korea) was the focus of this investigation. Using a global ethnographic approach, the authors collected diverse data through interviews, observations, archival and media documents, and field notes. Findings identified five key themes: (a) perception of underdevelopment, (b) the Organizing Committee’s institutional management of the global standard, (c) the Organizing Committee’s role as a negotiator between the global standard and the locality, (d) resident perspectives on global standards and regulations, and (e) aspirations to globalize Daegwallyeong-myeon. Through this study, the authors advance the use of world-systems theory and expand the concept of grobalization in the context of sport megaevent management by discussing global–local configurations and local agents’ desires to transform the community through Olympic-driven development and globalization.

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Lisa Sheehy, Heidi Sveistrup, Frank Knoefel, Anne Taillon-Hobson, Tara Martin, Mary Egan, Martin Bilodeau, Vivian Welch, Christine Yang, and Hillel Finestone

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of cognitive and physical decline. Virtual reality (VR) exercise may provide beneficial physical and cognitive exercise. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility and safety of home-based VR exercise and to provide pilot data for physical and cognitive efficacy. Eleven individuals with mild cognitive impairment (seven males/four females, average 78 years old, and average 3 years since diagnosis) performed a 30-min home-based VR exercise program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The VR platform was successfully installed in participants’ homes, and all participants were able to learn the VR program and progress. Participants completed 99% of the prescribed exercise. There were no major adverse events. Most participants enjoyed the VR program and reported physical benefits; fewer reported cognitive benefits. No physical or cognitive outcome measures showed change after 6 weeks. Home-based VR exercise is safe and feasible in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

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Jason Stamm and Brandon Boatwright

Using a theoretical underpinning of parasocial interaction—BIRGing (basking in reflected glory) and CORFing (cutting off reflected failure)—this study explored fan reactions to high school athletes’ commitments to play football for National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I programs. A thematic analysis of tweets made by fans during the 2020 recruiting period was examined in two stages: (a) tweets directed toward recruits before they committed to a program and (b) tweets directed toward recruits after they committed. Findings show fan frivolity in regard to identification, as well as a desire to become part of the recruiting process of high school football players. In addition, results yield the possibility of a shift in athlete motivations for social media use, fan association with athletics programs, and how fans cope with unexpected loss. Theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.

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Pierre Jéhannin, Alexis Le Faucheur, Ségolène Chaudru, Aline Taoum, Guillaume Mahé, and Pierre-Yves de Müllenheim

The authors investigated the agreement between StepWatch3™ (SW3) and ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ monitors for measuring step-based metrics in patients with peripheral artery disease and older adults. In 23 patients with peripheral artery disease and 38 older participants, the authors compared the metrics obtained during an outdoor (400-m track) walking session (step count) and a 7-day free-living period (step count and 60/30/5/1-min maximal or peak step accumulation) using the SW3 (ankle) and the wGT3X+ (hip) with the low-frequency extension filter enabled (wGT3X+/LFE) or not (wGT3X+/N). During outdoor walking session, agreement was high, particularly for wGT3X+/LFE: correlations ≥.98, median absolute percentage errors <1%, and significant equivalence using a ± 15% equivalence zone or narrower. In free living, no wGT3X+ method was equivalent to SW3 for step count. The wGT3X+/LFE was equivalent to SW3 regarding all step accumulation metrics using a ± 20% equivalence zone or narrower, with median absolute percentage errors <11%. The wGT3X+/LFE method is the best option for comparisons with SW3 in peripheral artery disease and older adults.