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Introduction From the New Editors

Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn

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Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Hospitalized Patients With Dementia

Brittany F. Drazich, Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Nayeon Kim, Rachel McPherson, Jeanette Ellis, Jasmine Phun, and Ashley Kuzmik

Older adults continue to spend little time engaged in physical activity when hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe activity among hospitalized older adults with dementia and (b) identify the association between specific factors (gender, ambulation independence, comorbidities, race, and hospital setting) and their physical activity. This descriptive study utilized baseline data on the first 79 participants from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care using the Evidence Integration Triangle. Multiple linear regression models were run using accelerometry data from the first full day of hospitalization. The participants spent an average of 83.7% of their time being sedentary. Male gender, ambulation independence, and hospital setting (the hospital in which the patient was admitted) were associated with greater activity. This study reports on the limited time spent in activity for older adults with dementia when hospitalized and highlights patient profiles that are particularly vulnerable to sedentary behavior in the hospital setting.

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Physical Activity as Measured by Accelerometers Predicts Functional Improvement in Older Patients Undergoing Hospital Rehabilitation

Takuro Ohtsubo, Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, and Katsuhiro Ueno

This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) as measured using accelerometers, and functional improvement measured using a short physical performance battery in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. After admission to the rehabilitation hospital, patients were categorized into quartile groups based on their level of PA measured using accelerometers. The primary outcome was physical function measured using the short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. A total of 204 patients were included in the analysis. After adjusting for confounding factors, light-intensity PA (p < .001) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (p < .001) were associated with a short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. In conclusion, PA at admission is positively associated with functional improvement in older patients undergoing hospital rehabilitation.

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Volume 31 (2023): Issue 1 (Feb 2023)

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SMARTfit Dual-Task Exercise Improves Cognition and Physical Function in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results of a Community-Based Pilot Study

Sameer Jhaveri, Matthew Romanyk, Ryan Glatt, and Nikhil Satchidanand

Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediate state between the cognitive decline often experienced in normal aging and dementia that affects 15% of Americans over 65 years of age. Our communities have an opportunity to support the development and adoption of evidence-based programs to help older adults preserve cognition and physical function. In partnership with a local urban YMCA in an underserved, predominantly minority neighborhood, we tested the appeal and therapeutic benefits of SMARTfit training among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. The participants reported a positive training experience. After 12 weeks of dual-task training, Trail-Making Test and Stroop Color–Word Interference Test scores improved, as did scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results of our SMARTfit dual-task training intervention are encouraging. Larger randomized controlled trials must further investigate the development, implementation, and therapeutic impacts of SMARTfit dual-task training on cognitive and physical function in aging.

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Change in Views of Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Health Over 8 Weeks: Results From a Randomized Study

Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.

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Resistance Band Exercise: An Effective Strategy to Reverse Cardiometabolic Disorders in Women With Osteosarcopenic Obesity

Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elahe Banitalebi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Rahimi, Ismail Laher, and Kade Davison

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65–80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.

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Components of a Behavior Change Model Drive Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

Nancy E. Mayo, Kedar Mate, Olayinka Akinrolie, Hong Chan, Nancy M. Salbach, Sandra C. Webber, and Ruth Barclay

This study aimed to inform a measurement approach for older persons who wish to engage in active living such as participating in a walking program. The Patient Generated Index, an individualized measurement approach, and directed and summative content analyses were carried out. A sample size of 204 participants (mean age 75 years; 62% women) was recruited; it generated 934 text threads mapped to 460 unique categories within 45 domains with similarities and differences for women and men. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviors Model best linked the domains. The results suggest that older persons identify the need to overcome impaired capacity, low motivation, and barriers to engagement to live actively. These are all areas that active living programs could address. How to measure the outcomes of these programs remains elusive.

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External Connectivity Evaluation of Community Open Spaces for Older Adults

Yi Sun and Ye Yuan

External connectivity refers to the service opportunities provided by community open spaces that are influenced by the factors such as traffic distance, road conditions, residence patterns, and population distribution. It is an important factor in determining access to community open spaces. This has important implications for promoting walking behavior and community physical activity among aging urban populations. Using the accessibility evaluation method, we proposed an external connectivity of the community open spaces model from the community perspective and conducted an empirical study using the Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen as an example. External connectivity of the community open spaces can be used to evaluate the efficiency of community open spaces, serving as a reference for open space optimization. Moreover, it has applicable value in promoting physical activity and healthy aging among older adults.

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What Do We Know About the Value of Sport for Older Adults? A Scoping Review

Shruti Patelia, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker

Issues relating to older adults in sport are ongoing topics of interest among sport scientists; however, our knowledge on how older athletes have been studied is incomplete, which has implications for understanding the comprehensiveness of this evidence base. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of how sport and older adults have been studied since the first World Masters Games. Data on research topics, research methods, sport-specific information, and demographic information on older athletes were collected and reviewed. Results suggest older athletes who are White, male, and competitive athletes have largely been the focus of research. In addition, results highlight an alarming number of unreported data related to the demographics of athlete samples. As a result, the well-documented benefits of sport may reflect a homogenous group of older adults, limiting our overall understanding of aging and sport and the value of this research for developing evidence-informed policy.