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Unmasking the Political Power of Physical Activity Research: Harnessing the “Apolitical-Ness” as a Catalyst for Addressing the Challenges of Our Time

Eun-Young Lee and Mark S. Tremblay

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Motivational Profile as a Predictor of Physical Activity Among US Adults During the Early Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Daily Diary Study

Kristen N. Moore, Kayla Nuss, Bridgette Do, Shirlene D. Wang, Kaigang Li, Dan J. Graham, Genevieve F. Dunton, and Jimikaye B. Courtney

This study used a daily diary approach to examine associations between day-level physical activity (PA) behavior, PA-specific motivational profile, and days since the COVID-19 national emergency declaration during the early months (April–June 2020) of the pandemic. A total of 468 US adults (M age = 34.8 y, 79% female) participated in a 28-day smartphone-based daily diary study assessing PA. A baseline survey assessed PA and motivation for PA using the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression models examined the main effects and interactions of motivational profile and time (days since the US March 13, 2020, COVID-19 national emergency declaration) on daily PA minutes. Latent profile analysis identified 4 distinct motivational profiles for PA among this sample: profile 1: high amotivation (n = 100, 21%); profile 2: low controlled motivation (n = 55, 12%); profile 3: high external regulation (n = 47, 10%); and profile 4: moderate autonomous motivation (n = 266, 57%). After controlling for baseline PA, there were significant interactions between profile and time on daily PA (−0.21, P < .01). Profile 2 showed greater decreases in daily PA minutes over time than profile 1 (b = −0.29, P < .01). Profiles 3 and 4 did not indicate significant decreases in PA compared with profile 1 (b = 0.14, P = .31 and b = −0.16, P = .05, respectively). Contrary to previous research, individuals with lower controlled or moderate autonomous motivation demonstrated the largest decreases in PA over time, whereas individuals with higher amotivation or external regulation demonstrated smaller decreases over time. These findings suggest that external motivation may have provided short-term protection against declines in PA observed during early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Is Binge Drinking Associated With Specific Types of Exercise and Free Time Sports? A Pooled Analysis With 718,147 Adults

Michael Pereira da Silva, Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Rodrigo Bozza, Thiago Matias, Thiago Silva Piola, Leandro Quadro Corrêa, Virgílio Ramires, Eduardo Alexandrino, and Samuel de Carvalho Dumith

Objective: To verify the association between exercise and free time sport types and binge drinking in a large sample of adults. Methods: Data of 718,147 adults from the “Surveillance of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey” were used. We described the demographic and behavioral variables, and negative binomial regression analyzed the association between exercise and free time sport types and binge drinking adjusted by demographics variables, body mass index status, and television time. Results: Outdoor walking/running was the most common exercise reported (20.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.8%–20.2%), followed by team sports (8.1%; 95% CI, 8.0%–8.2%) and strengthening (8.0%; 95% CI, 7.9%–8.1%). The prevalence of binge drinking for each exercise and free time sport type ranged from 6.9% (water aerobics) to 31.9% (team sports). Participants engaging in strengthening (prevalence ratio = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04–1.21, P = .002) and team sports (prevalence ratio = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07–1.17, P < .001) were more likely to binge drink more frequently in the past 30 days than inactive participants. Conclusions: It appears that the participants’ profile plays an important role in the underlying social context of this association. Participants with more frequent strengthening and less frequent team sports practice, who were primarily younger and single, were more likely to binge drink frequently.

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From Environmental Racism to Environmental Reparation: The Story of One American City

Jennifer D. Roberts

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The Important and Often Unrecognized Role of Physical Activity for Disease Management Among Highly Climate Vulnerable Clinical Populations

Deborah Salvo, Lisa Sharp, and Sharmilee Nyenhuis

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Prospective Association of Occupational and Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Early Adulthood: Findings From Pelotas (Brazil) 1982 Birth Cohort

Charles Phillipe de Lucena Alves, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Natália P. Lima, Pieter Coenen, and Bernardo Lessa Horta

Background: The benefits of physical activity in health outcomes are well established. However, recent evidence suggests that benefits may differ by domain and population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prospective association of occupational (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In 1982, the maternity hospitals of Pelotas were visited daily; those live births whose families lived in urban areas were evaluated, and their mothers were later interviewed (n = 5914). In the 2004/5 follow-up (23 y old), both OPA and LTPA were measured in 4295 participants using their respective sections of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In the 2012 follow-up (30 y old), the following cardiovascular risk factors were collected: high-density lipoprotein (in milligrams per deciliter), low-density lipoprotein (in milligrams per deciliter), triglycerides (in milligrams per deciliter), glucose (in milligrams per deciliter), and blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury). Multivariable linear regressions were performed to evaluate associations between OPA and LTPA with these specific cardiovascular risk factors. Results: In total, 3241 participants were analyzed. Our main findings suggest that there was no association between OPA and LTPA with high- and low-density lipoprotein. There were inverse associations between OPA and lower levels of triglycerides among males (β = −0.002; 95% confidence interval, −0.003 to −0.000) and positive associations between LTPA and higher levels of diastolic blood pressure among females (β = 0.111; 95% confidence interval, 0.005–0.216). Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings suggest that there was no association, or association with limited clinical relevance, of OPA and LTPA with cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood.

Open access

Erratum. Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Physical Education Exposure and Childhood Obesity

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Associations of Recreational and Nonrecreational Physical Activity and Body Weight Change on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality During the Obesogenic Transition in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study

Birinder S. Cheema, Zumin Shi, Rhiannon L. White, and Evan Atlantis

Background: To investigate cardiovascular disease mortality associated with longitudinal changes in body weight, and recreational and nonrecreational physical activity during the obesogenic transition in the United States since the 1970s. Methods: Data were analyzed from 4921 individuals aged 25–74 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1971 and 1979 and follow-up studies to 1992. Mortality was confirmed by searching the National Death Index or proxy interview; clinical data were collected in person. Changes in self-reported recreational and nonrecreational physical activity categories over time were coded as stable, increase, or decrease. Competing risks regression was used to determine hazard ratios adjusted for covariates. A logit model in a generalization method was used to explore mediation effects of change in body weight. Results: Compared with the “moderate–vigorous stable” group (reference), individuals who remained inactive (“inactive stable”) or reduced their participation in physical activity (“active to inactive”) experienced the highest mortality, with a 50% to 176% and 22% to 222% relative increased hazard ratios for nonrecreational and recreational physical activity, respectively, across all models adjusted for covariates. This corresponded to significant loss of life (up to 3 y; all P < .05). Individuals who became active (“inactive to active”) were not at increased risk. We found weak (but nonstatistically significant) evidence of mediation effects of body weight change on mortality. Conclusions: Longitudinal changes in moderate–vigorous recreational and nonrecreational physical activity were important predictors of cardiovascular disease mortality during the obesogenic transition period in the United States and were mostly unexplained by changes in body weight.

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Trajectories of Device-Measured Physical Activity During Early Childhood and Its Determinants: Findings From the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

Debora Tornquist, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Luciana Tornquist, Grégore I. Mielke, Ulf Ekelund, Joseph Murray, and Marlos R. Domingues

Background: The objective was to describe trajectories of physical activity (PA) measured by accelerometry during early childhood and to test associations with sociodemographic, gestational, maternal, and perinatal determinants. Methods: Data from 1798 children from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed. PA was measured with wrist accelerometers at 1, 2, and 4 years. PA trajectories were estimated using group-based trajectory modeling, and associations with determinants were tested using Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Two trajectories were identified: Moderate and high PA, both showing a linear increase in PA in the first years but differing in volume. Girls (prevalence ratio [PR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88–0.94), highly educated mothers (PR: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88–0.97), and high birth weight children (PR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85–0.97) showed less probability of high PA trajectory. Birth order ≥3 (PR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11) was associated with higher likelihood of high PA trajectory. Conclusions: Children showed an increase in PA during the first years, with 2 trajectories that differ in PA levels. Female sex, high maternal schooling, and high birth weight reduced the probability of having a high PA trajectory, while higher birth order increased this probability. These characteristics should be considered when planning PA interventions for children in early childhood.

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Behavioral Determinants of Physical Activity Among Secondary School Students Aged 14–15 Years in Cambodia

Kurusart Konharn, Suvannetra Po, Jirachai Karawa, Paramaporn Sangpara, and Lee David Johnson

Background: There is little known about physical activity (PA) behaviors and its determinants in Cambodian adolescents, particularly with regard to the home and school settings. Therefore, we aimed to investigate these behaviors and determinants on their PA. Methods: The samples collected were from 168 high school students, aged 14–15 years. They were requested to complete the self-report PA questionnaire. Time spent in PA during weekday and weekend by school location and gender, and determinants on PA were analyzed. Differences in the mean values of the PA levels (in minutes) during weekday and the weekend between genders, and between school locations were analyzed using independent sample t tests. The percentage of students’ perceptions on the determinants were calculated. Chi-squared test was used to compare the differences in prevalence of students’ activities during their free time with respect to school location and gender. Results: The majority of the parents (86.9%–98.2%) demonstrated strong support for their children for academic work. Rural students spent an average time of moderate-to-vigorous PA greater than their counterparts from the urban areas during their weekend days (329.1 vs 239.2 min, respectively). Moderate to vigorous PA was likely to be higher during the weekends compared with weekdays among the boys (387.9 vs 361.4 min, respectively). Girls were more likely to spend their time on moderate to vigorous PA during the weekdays compared with the weekends (205.4 vs 180.5 min, respectively). Conclusion: Consideration should be given to gender, school location, free time, and the environmental setting for the contextualization of more effective PA interventions with Cambodian youths.