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“I Do What I Like”: 8- to 10-Year-Old Children’s Physical Activity Behavior Is Already Interrelated With Their Automatic Affective Processes

Julia Limmeroth and Michaela Raboldt

The majority of middle-age children do not meet current physical activity guidelines. There is growing evidence that adults’ physical activity is partially influenced by automatic affective processes, which are derived from affective experiences with physical activity. However, little is known about whether these processes are interrelated with children’s physical activity level. A prospective design was used to examine whether automatic affective processes assessed by an evaluative priming procedure predict physical activity of children. Physical activity of 48 children (8.71 ± 0.71 years; 65% girls) was measured for 1 week with activity trackers. In a linear regression model, automatic affective processes (β = 0.36) significantly predicted physical activity, accounting for 11.02% of variance. These results indicate that physical-activity-related automatic affective processes are associated with children’s physical activity, as has previously been found in adults. This study emphasizes the importance of fostering positive affective experiences associated with physical activity during childhood.

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The Defender’s Vision—Gaze Behavior of One-on-One Defenders in Basketball

Johannes Meyer, Frowin Fasold, Karsten Schul, Matthias Sonnenschein, and Stefanie Klatt

In fast-paced team sports, anticipation is one important element in defense strategies. The primary objective of this study was to examine the recommendation for action and use of defensive gaze strategies by defensive players in basketball. Four national-level expert-basketball coaches were interviewed and a field study with mobile eye-tracking devices was conducted on 16 expert and 16 novice players defending in a one-on-one situation. Differences in relative fixation times between experts and novices were elaborated for the predetermined gaze zones—head, ball, torso, and feet—as given by the expert coaches. This was done for three phases of the movement sequence: receiving, dribbling, and shooting. The results of the interviews with expert coaches indicated that the existing coaching doctrine instructs players to look at the torso of an opponent to avoid being vulnerable to fakes. Surprisingly, our findings with the players showed a discrepancy in the evaluated gaze behavior of the experts and novices. For the receiving and dribbling phase, experts mainly fixated their gaze on the head while novices focused on the ball. For the final shooting phase, both the groups mainly fixated their gaze on the ball. Fixating the gaze on the ball or head makes the player potentially vulnerable to deceptive movements, as video-based research has shown. Expert coaches also indicated that peripheral vision is of importance to defenders, contradicting the existing assumption in the literature that focusing on the task-relevant areas is key for anticipation performance.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Erratum: Wierts et al. (2021)

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Related Self-Reported Symptoms Are Associated With Elevated Concussion Symptomatology

Lauren E. Bullard, Colt A. Coffman, Jacob J.M. Kay, Jeffrey P. Holloway, Robert D. Moore, and Matthew B. Pontifex

The aim of the present investigation was to provide insight into how postconcussion symptomatology may be altered in individuals exhibiting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)–related behaviors and examine factors that may be responsible for driving such relationships. A total of 99 individuals were assessed during the subacute phase of concussion recovery. Inattentive symptomatology, but not diagnosis of ADHD, was related to greater concussion-symptom severity and overall symptoms endorsed. Cluster and factor analyses highlighted that the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and concussion symptomatology was not a function of overlapping constructs being assessed (i.e., concussion-related symptomatology was not a proxy of ADHD-related symptomatology). These relationships were not mediated by parental observations of impairments in behaviors associated with executive functioning (i.e., executive dysfunction was not driving the greater concussion-related symptomatology associated with ADHD-related symptomatology). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond categorical frameworks of ADHD to, instead, consider the continuum of underlying behaviors.

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Effectiveness of Individual Exercise and Sport Counseling Based on Motives and Goals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nina Schorno, Vanessa Gut, Achim Conzelmann, and Julia Schmid

This study tested the effectiveness of individual exercise and sport counseling in a nonclinical setting. The COunseling based on Motives and goals in Exercise and sporT (COMET) approach focuses on individual motives and goals and aims to identify suitable activities. Participants experience different exercise and sport activities and reflect on them with a counselor, who applies motivational interviewing. A stratified randomized controlled design with 129 people was used. The intervention group took part in a counseling event, which included feedback on motives and goals, trial exercise and sport sessions, and structured reflection. Four weeks later, members of the group got a telephone booster. The control group received minimal intervention as written information. Results show that the counseling promoted motivational competence (η2 = .16), physical activity–specific self-control (η2 = .08), and the weekly volume of exercise and sport (η2 = .15), whereas it did not influence self-concordance. Further studies can investigate whether the COMET approach is also effective in other settings.

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Volume 44 (2022): Issue 1 (Feb 2022)

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Effects of Cooperation and Competition on Performance, Emotion, and Effort: Goal and Means Interdependence

Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu, and Andrew Cooke

Social interdependence theory proposes that task structure influences performance via social interaction. Using this framework, we examined sport performance. Fifty-six males performed a basketball task under four conditions: as an individual (individual, perform your best) and as a member of a team of two (cooperation, where teammates sought to better their individual performance; means independent competition, where two teams competed sequentially to outperform the other team; means interdependent competition, where two teams competed simultaneously to outperform the other team). Task performance (points) was better during means independent competition than other conditions. Anxiety and effort peaked during the competitions and enjoyment was greater during competition and cooperation than during the individual condition. Emotions, effort, and actions are discussed as explanations for the performance effects. Social interdependence theory provides a valuable framework to understand emotion, motivation, and performance. Team competition can be used to promote effort and enhance performance in sport.

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The Influence of Social Contexts on Motor and Cognitive Performance: Performing Alone, in Front of Others, or Coacting With Others

Christian Kaczmarek, Alexander Schmidt, Anna Sophie Emperle, and Sabine Schaefer

Group settings can help or hinder performances. We conducted two studies in a sporting context. Participants performed alone and in groups in which the other participants served as spectators or as coactors. In Study 1, 33 CrossFit athletes performed a timed fine motor task (stacking cups) and a gross motor task (planks). Plank performance increased in front of spectators and in the coacting condition as compared with the alone condition, whereas stacking performances were not affected by the social context. Study 2 assessed a working memory task (three-back) and a timed obstacle course requiring primarily motor speed. Subjects were 42 sports students. Spectators led to performance deteriorations in the complex cognitive task but to improved performances in the simple motor task, supporting the predictions formulated by Strauss. Future research should investigate whether the effects are mediated by the perception of one’s own performance compared with the group or by personality traits.

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A Temporal Study on Coach Behavior Profiles: Relationships With Athletes Coping and Affects Within Sport Competition

Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, and Michel Nicolas

The study aimed to identify coach behavior profiles and explore whether athletes from distinct profiles significantly differed on coping and affects experienced within 2 hr before the competition and during the competition (measuring them 2 hr after the competition). A sample of 306 French athletes (M age = 22.24; SD = 4.91; 194 men and 112 women) participated in the study. The results revealed the emergence of two profiles: (a) a coaching engaged profile that stands out for moderate physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, goal setting, competition strategies, personal rapport, and moderate negative personal rapport; and (b) a less engaged coaching profile with low physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, goal setting, competition strategies, personal rapport, and moderate negative personal rapport. Memberships of coach behavior profiles were not confounded by athletes’ practice experience, athlete’s gender, and coach experience. Results of latent profile analyses with Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem method (BCH) method revealed that coping and affective states significantly differed across the coach behavior profiles. As a whole, the less engaged coaching profile engenders the worst outcomes in competition. In conclusion, the detection of less adaptive coaching profiles would be crucial to prevent negative outcomes in athletes during the competition. This might be using intervention programs adapted to the peculiarities of athletes from a particular coach behavior profiles.