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Jerome Koral, Marie Fanget, Laurianne Imbert, Thibault Besson, Djahid Kennouche, Audrey Parent, Clément Foschia, Jérémy Rossi, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Purpose: Fatigue has previously been investigated in trail running by comparing maximal isometric force before and after the race. Isometric contractions may not entirely reflect fatigue-induced changes, and therefore dynamic evaluation is warranted. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the decrement of maximal isometric force versus maximal power, force, and velocity after trail running races ranging from 40 to 170 km. Methods: Nineteen trail runners completed races shorter than 60 km, and 21 runners completed races longer than 100 km. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVCs) of knee extensors and plantar flexors and maximal 7-second sprints on a cycle ergometer were performed before and after the event. Results: Maximal power output (P max; −14% [11%], P < .001), theoretical maximum force (F 0; −11% [14%], P < .001), and theoretical maximum velocity (−3% [8%], P = .037) decreased significantly after both races. All dynamic parameters but theoretical maximum velocity decreased more after races longer than 100 km than races shorter than 60 km (P < .05). Although the changes in IMVCs were significantly correlated (P < .05) with the changes in F 0 and P max, reductions in IMVCs for knee extensors (−29% [16%], P < .001) and plantar flexors (−26% [13%], P < .001) were larger (P < .001) than the reduction in P max and F 0. Conclusions: After a trail running race, reductions in isometric versus dynamic forces were correlated, yet they are not interchangeable because the losses in isometric force were 2 to 3 times greater than the reductions in P max and F 0. This study also shows that the effect of race distance on fatigue measured in isometric mode is true when measured in dynamic mode.

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Daniela M. Susnara, Matthew Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

Purpose: To examine the impact of an out-of-school swimming program on children and youth from one underserved community. Method: Participants were 200 children and youth who attended the out-of-school swimming program during two consecutive summers. The theoretical framework employed drew from previous research on socialization. A mixed-methods design involved participants’ aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety being assessed at the beginning and end of each summer. These data were examined through descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative methods employed were nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, and focus groups. Standard interpretive methods were employed to analyze the data these techniques yielded. Findings: Participants improved their aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety. They moved from being concerned for their safety to being confident in their aquatic ability and knowledge. The key socialization agents responsible for this shift were the instructors. Conclusion: The study suggests that an out-of-school swimming program taught by well-trained instructors can be effective.

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Johannes Raabe, Elmer Castillo, and Johannes Carl

Although applied sport psychology services have traditionally been provided in athletic settings, there has been a trend toward a more general application across different performance domains and, in particular, with tactical populations (i.e., military, law enforcement, and firefighters). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the existing research on mental qualities and techniques in tactical populations. A database search revealed 7,220 potentially relevant articles, which were screened by two independent reviewers based on predefined inclusion criteria. This systematic screening process helped to identify 49 articles for further analysis. The findings highlight the benefits of developing mental qualities and techniques among tactical populations, as they can help to nurture a range of positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Yet, this review also indicates gaps and limitations that need to be addressed in future research to gain a better understanding of the antecedents, mediators, and consequences of these psychological constructs.

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Michael A. Hemphill, Risto Marttinen, and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: The purpose of this cyclical action research study was to examine the perspectives of Clyde, a first-year physical education teacher working in an urban intensive environment, as he attempted to implement restorative practices. Methods: Data included semistructured interviews, weekly e-mail communication, text messages, photographs, field notes from observations, and artifacts. Data were analyzed using a combination of inductive and deductive analysis. Results: The results are presented in three themes: (a) searching for appropriate discipline procedures, (b) critical incidents inhibited the integration of restorative practices, and (c) lack of preparation to teach in an urban intensive environment. Conclusion: Clyde’s experience suggests that challenges for early career teachers may be further complicated by teaching in urban intensive environments. Teacher educators may consider the different contexts in which teachers work and the influence they can have on both teacher effectiveness and job satisfaction.

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Rodrigo Zacca, Bruno Mezêncio, Flávio A. de Souza Castro, Fábio Y. Nakamura, David B. Pyne, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Aim: The authors investigated how the Arena Powerskin R-EVO Closed Back swimsuit and Arena Carbon Triwetsuit (full-sleeve wetsuit), both approved by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) regulations, affect biomechanics and energetics of 3 elite female open water (OW) swimmers at maximal and 4 submaximal swimming intensities. Methods: Three elite female OW swimmers (OW1 = 24 y, 1.64 m, 60 kg; OW2 = 23 y, 1.69 m, 65 kg; OW3 = 27 y, 1.63 m, 64.5 kg) were tested 1 week prior to a FINA/CNSG (China National Sports Group) Marathon Swim World Series event and 40 days before the 18th FINA World Championships 2019. Each OW swimmer completed 2 identical testing sessions, one with a swimsuit and other with a wetsuit, involving shoulder flexion power output assessed from medicine-ball throw, maximal performance and drag coefficient assessment, and an incremental intermittent swim test at 4 different relative intensities. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake was 4.4 L·min−1 for OW1, 5.6 L·min−1 for OW2, and 5.0 L·min−1 for OW3. Despite a distinct behavior observed on index of coordination for OW3, a null index of synchronization, increased stroke rate (mean difference = 2%–8%), reduced drag factor (minimum = −14%; maximum = −30%), lower energy cost (mean difference = −2% to −6%), and faster performance (mean difference = 2% to 3%) were observed with the wetsuit compared with swimsuit for all elite OW swimmers. Conclusion: The wetsuit enhances submaximal swimming performance, and this increase is dependent on the OW swimmer’s characteristics. The higher stroke rate and lower stroke length detected with wetsuit could be related to movement constraints imposed by the suit.

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Richard F. Jowers, Jamie J. Brunsdon, Jacob T. Peterson, Hayden L. Mitchell, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To examine the influence of occupational socialization on the beliefs and actions of six sport pedagogy doctoral students (DSs) in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Method: Data were collected with five qualitative techniques and analyzed by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Results: DSs had conservative or liberal views about PE and endorsed hybrid forms of PETE, which included elements of the behavioristic, traditional/craft, and critical inquiry orientations. Patterns of socialization that shaped these beliefs and actions were both congruent and contrasting with those described in past research. Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of asking potential DSs about their beliefs and the forces that shaped those beliefs during recruitment. In addition, it indicates that the potency of doctoral education can be enhanced when it has a dual focus on PETE and research and when DSs experience it within a cohort.

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Deborah S. Baxter and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

Purpose: This study examined and deconstructed socialization experiences relative to the educative teacher performance assessment (edTPA) process of preservice teachers during their physical education (PE) teacher education program and induction year as a PE teacher. Method: Utilizing a multiple case study design, two PE teachers were purposefully selected and investigated from a PE teacher education program requiring a passing score on the edTPA. Interviews and stimulated recall sessions served as data sources. Results: The following themes were identified: (a) initial interactions and impetus for teaching—engaging and fun; (b) instruction in PE teacher education—learning a ton; (c) internship—gauging, I’m stunned; (d) implementation of edTPA—raging, I’m done; and (e) induction—waging has begun. Discussion/Conclusions: Although participants in this study were able to note several positives of the assessment, a majority of the findings corroborate previous research suggesting that edTPA may serve as a subtractive experience for PE preservice teachers.

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Xabier Muriel, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Manuel Mateo-March, Jesús G. Pallarés, Alejandro Lucia, and David Barranco-Gil

Purpose: To compare the physical demands and performance indicators of male professional cyclists of 2 different categories (Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour [WT] and ProTeam [PT]) during a cycling grand tour. Methods: A WT team (n = 8, 31.4 [5.4] y) and a PT team (n = 7, 26.9 [3.3] y) that completed “La Vuelta 2020” volunteered to participate. Participants’ power output (PO) was registered, and measures of physical demand and physiological performance (kilojoules spent, training stress score, time spent at different PO bands/zones, and mean maximal PO [MMP] for different exertion durations) were computed. Results: WT achieved a higher final individual position than PT (31 [interquartile range = 33] vs 71 [59], P = .004). WT cyclists showed higher mean PO and kilojoule values than their PT peers and spent more time at high-intensity PO values (>5.25 W·kg−1) and zones (91%–120% of individualized functional threshold power) (Ps < .05). Although no differences were found for MMP values in the overall analysis (P > .05), subanalyses revealed that the between-groups gap increased through the race, with WT cyclists reaching higher MMP values for ≥5-minute efforts in the second and third weeks (Ps < .05). Conclusions: Despite the multifactorial nature of cycling performance, WT cyclists spend more time at high intensities and show higher kilojoules and mean PO than their PT referents during a grand tour. Although the highest MMP values attained during the whole race might not differentiate between WT and PT cyclists, the former achieve higher MMP values as the race progresses.

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Johnpaul Caia, Shona L. Halson, Patrick M. Holmberg, and Vincent G. Kelly

Purpose: To examine the sleep of rugby league athletes the night before and following an evening match and to investigate the association between caffeine intake and sleep on the night of competition. Methods: On the night prior to, night of, and night after a professional rugby league match, 15 athletes had their sleep monitored using wrist activity monitors. Additionally, saliva samples were collected 60 minutes before and 30 minutes after the competition to assess salivary caffeine concentration. Differences in sleep across the 3 nights were examined using linear mixed models, and changes were assessed using effect size (ES). Pearson correlation (r) assessed the relationship between salivary caffeine levels and sleep indices. Results: On the night of competition, athletes went to bed later than the night before (P = .00002, ES = 1.84) and night after (P = .0003, ES = 1.49) competition. Consequently, their sleep duration was reduced on the night of competition compared with the previous night (P < .0000003, ES = 2.36) and night after competition (P = .001, ES = 1.53). Postcompetition salivary caffeine concentration was substantially elevated in athletes when compared with precompetition measures (P < .00000001, ES = 4.44), and moderate, nonsignificant correlations were observed between changes in salivary caffeine concentration and delayed bedtime (r = .48, P = .07), increased sleep latency (r = .45, P = .09), decreased sleep duration (r = −.30, P = .28), and reduced sleep efficiency (r = −.34, P = .22). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that evening competition results in sleep disturbance in rugby league athletes, and caffeine supplementation prior to and during competition leads to substantial increases in postcompetition salivary caffeine concentration.