This study explored the views of Canadian Masters athletes (MAs; M age = 51, range 38–62; three men and five women) from 12 sports (10 individual and two team sports) on sport psychology for performance, experiential, and lifestyle enhancement. Using Braun and Clarke’s procedures for thematic analysis, the authors interpreted data from semistructured interviews deductively in relation to five strategic themes in which psychological skills are applied for performance enhancement. Deductive results demonstrated MAs used goal setting, imagery, arousal regulation, concentration, and self-confidence to enhance performance and obtain competitive advantages. The authors also analyzed data inductively to reveal themes related to experiential and lifestyle factors. Inductive results showed that MAs “placed priorities on sport,” which involved cognitively justifying the priority and framing sport as an outlet and as the embodiment of the authentic self. Social strategies associated with continued sport pursuit included cultivation of supportive social environments, social contracts/negotiations, social signaling, and social accountability. Strategies “to fit sport in” included integrating/twinning, scheduling, and managing commitment. Managing age-related concerns involved mindfulness and compensation strategies. Results show how MAs uniquely apply sport psychology to enhance their performance and to support sport adherence.
Tyler Makepeace, Bradley W. Young, and Scott Rathwell
Claudio Quagliarotti, Matteo Cortesi, Giorgio Gatta, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Roberto Baldassarre, Veronica Vleck, and Maria Francesca Piacentini
Purpose : Although wearing a wetsuit while swimming, when permitted, is primarily for safety reasons (ie, to protect against hypothermia), changes in buoyancy, biomechanics, and exercise performance have been reported. This narrative review covers the benefits of different wetsuit models on performance in swimming and triathlon. Methods : A computer search of online databases was conducted to locate relevant published research until March 2021. After the screening process, 17 studies were selected for analysis. Results : Most of the selected studies involved pool swimmers or triathletes completing short or middle distances in a pool while using a full or a long sleeveless wetsuit. Swimming with wetsuit elicited significant improvements in performance (maximum 11%), mainly by decreasing drag and energy cost, by increasing buoyancy, and by affecting technique. Different rates of change in each factor were found according to swimming ability and wetsuit model. In addition, wearing a wetsuit was often rated as uncomfortable by athletes. Conclusions : Although improvement in swimming performance by wearing a wetsuit has been reported in the literature, the amplitude of the improvement remains questionable. The enhancement in swimming performance is attributable merely to improvements in propulsion proficiency and buoyancy, as well as a reduction in drag. The extent to which athletes are familiar with the use of a wetsuit, their swimming ability, and the wetsuit model may play important roles in this improvement. More studies simulating competition and comparing elite versus nonelite athletes are needed.
Yasuki Sekiguchi, Courteney L. Benjamin, Samantha O. Dion, Ciara N. Manning, Jeb F. Struder, Erin E. Dierickx, Margaret C. Morrissey, Erica M. Filep, and Douglas J. Casa
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heat acclimation (HA) on thirst levels, sweat rate, and percentage of body mass loss (%BML), and changes in fluid intake factors throughout HA induction. Twenty-eight male endurance athletes (mean ± SD; age, 35 ± 12 years; body mass, 73.0 ± 8.9 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 57.4 ± 6.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed 60 min of exercise in a euhydrated state at 58.9 ± 2.3% velocity of maximal oxygen consumption in the heat (ambient temperature, 35.0 ± 1.3 °C; relative humidity, 48.0 ± 1.3%) prior to and following HA where thirst levels, sweat rate, and %BML were measured. Then, participants performed 5 days of HA while held at hyperthermia (38.50–39.75 °C) for 60 min with fluid provided ad libitum. Sweat volume, %BML, thirst levels, and fluid intake were measured for each session. Thirst levels were significantly lower following HA (pre, 4 ± 1; post, 3 ± 1, p < .001). Sweat rate (pre, 1.76 ± 0.42 L/hr; post, 2.00 ± 0.60 L/hr, p = .039) and %BML (pre, 2.66 ± 0.53%; post, 2.98 ± 0.83%, p = .049) were significantly greater following HA. During HA, thirst levels decreased (Day 1, 4 ± 1; Day 2, 3 ± 2; Day 3, 3 ± 2; Day 4, 3 ± 1; Day 5, 3 ± 1; p < .001). However, sweat volume (Day 1, 2.34 ± 0.67 L; Day 2, 2.49 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 2.67 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 2.74 ± 0.61 L; Day 5, 2.74 ± 0.91 L; p = .010) and fluid intake (Day 1, 1.20 ± 0.45 L; Day 2, 1.52 ± 0.58 L; Day 3, 1.69 ± 0.63 L; Day 4, 1.65 ± 0.58 L; Day 5, 1.74 ± 0.51 L; p < .001) increased. In conclusion, thirst levels were lower following HA even though sweat rate and %BML were higher. Thirst levels decreased while sweat volume and fluid intake increased during HA induction. Thus, HA should be one of the factors to consider when planning hydration strategies.
Michael A. Hemphill, Emily M. Janke, Santos Flores, and Barrie Gordon
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the issues of conflict and harm in physical education within a school recognized for its exemplary restorative practices. Method: A single case study approach was employed to examine one restorative school in Wellington, New Zealand. The school was purposely selected to participate in this study based on its recognition for exemplary restorative practices. Participants included physical educators (n = 11), administrators (n = 4), and students (n = 25). Data sources included interviews, observations, and reflection documents. Data were analyzed using a collaborative qualitative approach. Results: Three qualitative themes described the context of restorative school physical education, types of harm that occurred, and how physical educators were positioned as central figures in creating a context where harm was addressed. Discussion: This study provides insights into restorative practices and has implications for teaching social and emotional learning skills.
Sofía Pereira-García, Elena López-Cañada, and Agnes Elling-Machartzki
Purpose: The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, and queer/questioning students normally occupy a marginalized and at-risk position in classes and especially in physical education. In this paper, the authors explore the ways in which queer tango can contribute to counteracting heteronormativity and opening up students to new interactions and identifications through the performance of different gender performances in Physical Education and Sport Tertiary Education. Method: A queer tango session was carried out with 111 university students (91 men and 19 women aged 19–22 years). Data were obtained from interviews, video records, and open questionnaires about the practice. Results: The findings reveal that the performance of dance roles that are contrary to the heteronormative order reinforced both heteronormativity and queer embodiments in Physical Education and Sport Tertiary Education. Conclusion: An isolated activity is not enough, and more queer pedagogical practices should be introduced in order to make meaningful changes to mainstream students’ ideology and behaviors.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Erin E. Snapp, E. Whitney G. Moore, Lauren J. Lieberman, Ellen Armstrong, and Staci Mannella
Youth with visual impairments (VIs) often experience unique barriers to physical activity compared with their sighted peers. A psychometrically sound scale for assessing barriers to physical activity for youth with VI is needed to facilitate research. The purpose of this study was to confirm the ability of the previously identified three-factor structure of the Physical Activity Barriers Questionnaire for youth with Visual Impairments (PABQ-VI) to produce scores considered to be valid and reliable that perform equally well across age, VI severity, and gender. Our results supported the three-factor structure and that the PABQ-VI produces scores considered valid and reliable. Mean, variance, and correlation differences were found in personal, social, and environmental barriers for age and VI severity, but not gender. Researchers can use the PABQ-VI to test and evaluate ways to reduce barriers for this population.
Antoine Raberin, Elie Nader, Jorge Lopez Ayerbe, Patrick Mucci, Vincent Pialoux, Henri Meric, Philippe Connes, and Fabienne Durand
This study aimed to investigate the changes in blood viscosity, pulmonary hemodynamics, nitric oxide (NO) production, and maximal oxygen uptake (
Cindy M.T. van der Avoort, Luc J.C. van Loon, Lex B. Verdijk, Paul P.C. Poyck, Dick T.J. Thijssen, and Maria T.E. Hopman
Previous studies have used supplements to increase dietary nitrate intake in clinical populations. Little is known about whether effects can also be induced through vegetable consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary nitrate, through nitrate-rich vegetables (NRV) and beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation, on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and cardiovascular function in patients with peripheral arterial disease. In a randomized crossover design, 18 patients with peripheral arterial disease (age: 73 ± 8 years) followed a nitrate intake protocol (∼6.5 mmol) through the consumption of NRV, BRJ, and nitrate-depleted BRJ (placebo). Blood samples were taken, blood pressure and arterial stiffness were measured in fasted state and 150 min after intervention. Each intervention was followed by a maximal walking exercise test to determine claudication onset time and peak walking time. Gastrocnemius oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were taken and blood pressure was measured 10 min after exercise. Mean plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased (nitrate; Time × Intervention interaction; p < .001), with the highest concentrations after BRJ (494 ± 110 μmol/L) compared with NRV (202 ± 89 μmol/L) and placebo (80 ± 19 μmol/L; p < .001). Mean claudication onset time and peak walking time did not differ between NRV (413 ± 187 s and 745 ± 220 s, respectively), BRJ (392 ± 154 s and 746 ± 176 s), and placebo (403 ± 176 s and 696 ± 222 s) (p = .762 and p = .165, respectively). Gastrocnemius oxygenation, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness were not affected by the intervention. NRV and BRJ intake markedly increase plasma nitrate and nitrite, but this does not translate to improved exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and/or cardiovascular function.
Oriana Wong, Keiko Marshall, Marc Sicova, Nanci S. Guest, Bibiana García-Bailo, and Ahmed El-Sohemy
Caffeine is commonly used to improve athletic performance across a variety of sports. Previously, the CYP1A2 gene has been shown to modify the effects of caffeine on endurance performance. The effect of caffeine on strength and power activities is unclear and may differ depending on an individual’s CYP1A2 genotype. A randomized controlled trial was used to determine whether caffeine impacts strength and power, determined by the handgrip and vertical jump tests, respectively, and whether CYP1A2 genotype modifies any effects. Competitive male athletes (age = 25 ± 4 years) completed vertical jump (n = 97), and handgrip tests (n = 102) under three conditions: 0 (placebo), 2, or 4 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass (in milligrams per kilogram). CYP1A2 (rs762551) genotype was determined from saliva samples. No differences between caffeine doses and placebo were observed for strength or power; however, significant Caffeine × Gene interactions were observed for all exercise tests. Individuals with the CC genotype experienced a 12.8% decrease in handgrip strength with 4 mg/kg of caffeine compared with placebo (53 ± 11 kg vs. 61 ± 17 kg, p = .02). No differences were observed in those with the AC or AA genotypes. Despite observing a significant Caffeine × Gene interaction for vertical jump performance, no differences were observed between caffeine doses and placebo for all genotypes. In summary, caffeine (4 mg/kg) worsened handgrip strength performance in those with the CC genotype, but no differences were observed in those with the AC or AA genotypes. Athletes may want to consider their CYP1A2 genotype prior to using caffeine to improve muscle strength.