Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 9,428 items for :

  • Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Taylor B. Chandler, Matthew J. Rivera, Elizabeth R. Neil, and Lindsey E. Eberman

Screening for behavioral health (BH) concerns is important for early identification, referral, and management. The purpose of this study was to examine collegiate athletic trainers use of BH screening tools. We used a cross-sectional design with a web-based survey. Approximately 49% (n = 198/405) of participants used BH screening tools in their practice; the most used tools were PHQ-9 (n = 112/198, 56.6%) and GAD-7 (n = 54/198, 27.3%). Practice integration considerations and practice advancements occurred as a result of BH screening. Given rising incidence and severity of BH conditions in collegiate athletics, more training on screening and prevention is needed.

Restricted access

Larry R. Munger, Jean-Michel Brismée, Phillip S. Sizer, and C. Roger James

This study investigated whether the directional balance and reach with and without rotation is a reliable screening tool to measure dynamic balance and ability to control motion in three planes. Twenty healthy, collegiate athletes participated. The directional balance and reach exhibited good to excellent levels of intra- and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .77–.99). The directional balance and reach provides clinicians with a reliable method that requires minimum financial, spatial, and temporal costs to administer in small and large screening, training, and evaluation programs to recognize asymmetries and deficits in assessing dynamic balance in all three planes of motion.

Restricted access

Alyssa N. Olivas, Emily A. Chavez, and Jeffrey D. Eggleston

Weighted vests have been used primarily as behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with autism. Contemporary research has begun to examine weighted vest effects on movement. Previous research in children with neurotypical development revealed 15% body mass loads modified spatial-temporal gait characteristics; however, a value applicable to children and adolescents with autism has not been established. The purpose of this study was to establish an appropriate mass value by examining spatial-temporal gait parameters in children and adolescents with autism with various loads in a weighted vest. Nine children and adolescents with autism, aged 8–17, walked without a weighted vest, with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% body mass while spatial-temporal data were captured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (α = .05) were conducted among conditions for each variable, with a Holm–Bonferroni method correction. Analysis revealed significant decreases in right step length, but no differences in stride width, left step length, double-limb support time, or stride velocity were observed. Due to insignificant findings, an appropriate mass value could not be determined for weighted vests for children with autism. However, unchanged spatial-temporal gait parameters with increasing loads could be clinically relevant as weighted vest loads of 10% are typically used for behavioral interventions.

Restricted access

Thomas Jacob, Swarnab Dutta, Salai Jeyaseelan Annamalai, and Varadhan SKM

The efficient coordination of fingertip forces to maintain static equilibrium while grasping an object continues to intrigue scientists. While many studies have explored this coordination, most of these studies assumed that interactions of hands primarily occur with rigid inanimate objects. Instead, our daily interactions with living and nonliving entities involve many dynamic, compliant, or fragile bodies. This paper investigates the fingertip force coordination on a manipulandum that changes its shape while grasping it. We designed a five-finger perturbation system with linear actuators at positions corresponding to each finger that would protrude outward from the center of the handle or retract toward the center of the handle as programmed. The behavior of the perturbed fingers and the other fingers while grasping this device was studied. Based on previous experiments on expanding and contracting handles, we hypothesized that each finger would exhibit a comparable response to similar horizontal perturbations. However, the response of the little finger was significantly different from the other fingers. We speculate that the central nervous system demonstrates preferential recruitment of some fingers over others while performing a task.

Open access

Hangue Park, Alexander N. Klishko, Kyunggeune Oh, Celina Zhang, Gina Grenga, Kinsey R. Herrin, John F. Dalton IV, Robert S. Kistenberg, Michel A. Lemay, Mark Pitkin, Stephen P. DeWeerth, and Boris I. Prilutsky

Cutaneous feedback from feet is involved in regulation of muscle activity during locomotion, and the lack of this feedback results in motor deficits. We tested the hypothesis that locomotor changes caused by local unilateral anesthesia of paw pads in the cat could be reduced/reversed by electrical stimulation of cutaneous and proprioceptive afferents in the distal tibial nerve during stance. Several split-belt conditions were investigated in four adult female cats. In addition, we investigated the effects of similar distal tibial nerve stimulation on overground walking of one male cat that had a transtibial, bone-anchored prosthesis for 29 months and, thus, had no cutaneous/proprioceptive feedback from the foot. In all treadmill conditions, cats walked with intact cutaneous feedback (control), with right fore- and hindpaw pads anesthetized by lidocaine injections, and with a combination of anesthesia and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral distal tibial nerve during the stance phase at 1.2× threshold of afferent activation. Electrical stimulation of the distal tibial nerve during the stance phase of walking with anesthetized ipsilateral paw pads reversed or significantly reduced the effects of paw pad anesthesia on several kinematic variables, including lateral center of mass shift, cycle and swing durations, and duty factor. We also found that stimulation of the residual distal tibial nerve in the prosthetic hindlimb often had different effects on kinematics compared with stimulation of the intact hindlimb with paw anesthetized. We suggest that stimulation of cutaneous and proprioceptive afferents in the distal tibial nerve provides functionally meaningful motion-dependent sensory feedback, and stimulation responses depend on limb conditions.

Restricted access

Serkan Uslu and Emel Çetin Özdoğan

Instep kick is one of the most effective kicking techniques in soccer. Lower extremity muscles and joints play a crucial role during instep kick. However, external (EF) and internal focus and their effect on the muscles are still ambiguous. In this study, 13 male adolescent soccer players were included and aimed to hit the targets in internal and EF conditions. Lower extremity muscle activations were measured with surface electromyography, and kinematics were measured with a high-speed video camera. Muscle activations and movement latencies were analyzed in four different phases (backswing, leg cocking, acceleration, and follow-through) of kicking. While 10 out of 13 participants kicked accurately in internal focus, only five out of 13 in EF kicked accurately. Gastrocnemius muscle activations increased significantly in EF in all phases except acceleration. Movement latencies were found 0.07 ± 0.002 s for accurate and 0.05 ± 0.004 s for inaccurate kicks in EF. A correlation has been found between accuracy and movement latency in EF (R = .67). Our results suggest that novices cannot yet coordinate their muscles in EF, cocontraction ratio increases. Therefore, training strategies that aim to reduce the cocontraction ratio can help the athlete increase performance through better motor coordination. Moreover, better motor coordination may be beneficial in preventing injuries (joint stiffness, etc.) caused by increased cocontraction ratio.