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Ibai Garcia-Tabar, Aitor Iturricastillo, Julen Castellano, Eduardo L. Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo, and Igor Setuain

Purpose: To develop gender-specific operational equations for prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness in female footballers. Method: Forty-eight semiprofessional female footballers performed an intermittent progressive maximal running test for determination of fixed blood lactate concentration (FBLC) thresholds. Relationships between FBLC thresholds and the physiological responses to submaximal running were examined. Developed equations (n = 48) were compared with equations previously obtained in another investigation performed in males (n = 100). Results: Submaximal velocity associated with 90% maximal heart rate was related to FBLC thresholds (r = .76 to .79; P < .001). Predictive power (R 2 = .82 to .94) of a single blood lactate concentration (BLC) sample measured at 10 or 11.5 km·h−1 was very high. A single BLC sample taken after a 5-minute running bout at 8.5 km·h−1 was related to FBLC thresholds (r = −.71; P < .001). No difference (P = .15) in the regression lines predicting FBLC thresholds from velocity associated with 90% maximal heart rate was observed between the female and male cohorts. However, regressions estimating FBLC thresholds by a single BLC sample were different (P = .002). Conclusions: Velocity associated with 90% maximal heart rate was robustly related to FBLC thresholds and might serve for mass field testing independently of sex. BLC equations accurately predicted FBLC thresholds. However, these equations are gender-specific. This is the first study reporting operational equations to estimate the FBLC thresholds in female footballers. The use of these equations reduces the burden associated with cardiorespiratory testing. Further cross-validation studies are warranted to validate the proposed equations and establish them for mass field testing.

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Cuma Uz, Ebru Umay, Ibrahim Gundogdu, Hamid Amini, Fatma B. Uz, Ozlem Erol, Dilek Unalan, Fatma Y. Korkmaz, and Mohsen Akbarpour

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive measures can reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate predisease physical activity and current functional capacity in patients with and without the presence of pneumonia and oxygen requirement in Turkish survivors of COVID-19. Methods: Among the COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital, 100 patients were selected. Data about predisease physical activity (by short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire), oxygen requirement and presence of pneumonia, and current functional capacity (by the 6-min walking test) were collected. Continuous and categorical variables were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and χ 2 test, respectively (P < .05). Results: The predisease physical activity levels and current functional capacity of patients with pneumonia and oxygen requirement were significantly lower than patients without pneumonia and oxygen requirement (P < .05). However, there was no significant difference between males and females (P > 0.05). Pneumonia and oxygen requirement was more common in the older adults (P < .05). Also, a significant correlation was found between age with predisease physical activity (r = .530, P = .000) and current functional capacity (r = −.346, P = .000) and predisease physical activity level with current functional capacity (r = .523, P = .001). Conclusion: The physical activity level may be related to the severity of COVID-19 disease.

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

This study investigated the relationship between reappraisal and suppression with depression and mental well-being among university athletes. It was hypothesized reappraisal would associate with lower depression and greater mental well-being, whereas suppression would associate with greater depression and reduced mental well-being. Employing a cross-sectional design, 427 participants (M age = 20.18, SD = 1.52; 188 males and 239 females) completed questionnaires assessing mental health and strategy use. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed reappraisal was positively associated, and suppression negatively associated with mental well-being, ΔR 2 = 4.8%, ΔF(2, 422) = 17.01, p ≤ .001; suppression, β = −0.08, p = .028; reappraisal, β = 0.21, p ≤ .001, but neither were associated with depression, ΔR 2 = 0.4%, ΔF(2, 422) = 1.33, p = .267; suppression, β = 0.06, p = .114; reappraisal, β = 0.03, p = .525. Results highlight reappraisal as correlated with mental well-being in student-athletes, and therefore, reappraisal could be beneficial for managing stress in sport. Reappraisal may implicate how well-being is promoted through sport, but future experimental research is needed to confirm causal relationships.

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Malorie Polster, Erin E. Dooley, Kate Olscamp, Katrina L. Piercy, and April Oh

Background: Dissemination of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (Guidelines) is needed, but how individuals respond to the Guidelines is not well understood. This surveillance study describes US adults’ reported responses to and information sources for hearing about the Guidelines and explores relationships between how respondents heard about the Guidelines and their reported response(s). Methods: Data were analyzed from the population-based 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey 5 Cycle 3. Population-weighted proportions of response were calculated. Among those who had heard about the Guidelines, binary logistic regressions examined associations between the reported response(s) and the information source and number of sources reported. Results: The analytical sample included 5047 adults. Nearly 65% of US adults reported hearing about the Guidelines, and 29% reported a behavioral response (eg, increased physical activity). Hearing about the Guidelines through health professionals (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval, 1.45–3.65) or social media (adjusted odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.96) (vs other sources) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity. Hearing from multiple sources (vs one source) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.18–3.31). Conclusion: Findings suggest dissemination of the Guidelines across multiple channels may promote greater changes in physical activity.

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Shona L. Halson, Renee N. Appaneal, Marijke Welvaert, Nirav Maniar, and Michael K. Drew

Purpose: Psychological stress is reported to be an important contributor to reduced sleep quality and quantity observed in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between psychological stress and sleep and to identify if specific aspects of sleep are disturbed. Methods: One hundred thirty-one elite athletes (mean [SD], male: n = 46, age 25.8 [4.1] y; female: n = 85, age 24.3 [3.9] y) from a range of sports completed a series of questionnaires in a 1-month period approximately 4 months before the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. Questionnaires included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Recovery-Stress Questionnaire; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS 21); and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: Regression analysis identified the PSS and DASS stress as the main variables associated with sleep. A PSS score of 6.5 or higher was associated with poor sleep. In addition, a PSS score lower than 6.5 combined with a DASS stress score higher than 4.5 was also associated with poor sleep. Univariate analyses on subcomponents of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index confirmed that PSS is associated with lower sleep quality (t 99 = 2.40, P = .018), increased sleep disturbances (t 99 = 3.37, P = .001), and increased daytime dysfunction (t 99 = 2.93, P = .004). DASS stress was associated with increased sleep latency (t 94 = 2.73, P = .008), increased sleep disturbances (t 94 = 2.25, P = .027), and increased daytime dysfunction (t 94 = 3.58, P = .001). Conclusions: A higher stress state and higher perceived stress were associated with poorer sleep, in particular increased sleep disturbances and increased daytime dysfunction. Data suggest that relatively low levels of psychological stress are associated with poor sleep in elite athletes.

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Roslyn Kerr and Seònaid Mary-Kate Espiner

This article examines an area that has received surprisingly little attention within the sociology of sport literature: the role of human movement and the ways in which it can be understood and valued. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Judith Butler, in this article, the authors have raised the possibility of sporting “movement capital.” The authors argued that rules and regulations produce and legitimize particular types of movements, which are then reinforced through institutionalized athlete development practices and able to be converted to symbolic capital. However, movements might also be valued as demonstrating particular traits and/or invoking emotional reactions, and be recognized as familiar. The authors concluded that, through identifying the connections between Bourdieu’s habitus and Butler’s performativity, they can understand how the value of movement is constantly in-flux, constantly regenerating as athletes imperfectly produce and reproduce recognizable movements as part of their sporting habitus.

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André O. Werneck, Luciana L. Barboza, Raphael H.O. Araújo, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Giseli N. Damacena, Célia L. Szwarcwald, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: The authors analyzed time trends and sociodemographic inequalities in different physical activity and sedentary behavior domains between 2003 and 2019. Methods: A secondary analysis of data from 5 cross-sectional Brazilian epidemiological surveys (World Health Survey—2003, National Household Sample Survey—2008/2015, and Brazilian Health Survey—2013/2019) conducted among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adults. The authors used data on different domains of physical activity (leisure, commute, total transport, and total physical activity) and sedentary behavior (TV viewing and other types of screens) that were available in the different surveys. Gender, age group, country region, ethnicity, type of area and city, and quintiles of income and educational achievement were used as sociodemographic correlates. Results: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity increased over time (2008: 7.0% vs 2019: 26.5%). There was also an increased trend of social inequality in leisure-time physical activity. A trend of reduction was observed for active commuting (2008: 35.0% vs 2019: 21.8%), while total transport physical activity was stable (2013: 49.5% vs 2019: 49.6%). Directions of findings were opposite for sedentary behavior, with reduced trend for >3 hours per day of TV viewing (2008: 34.8% vs 2019: 21.8%) and increased trend for >3 hours per day of other types of screen time (2008: 6.4% vs 2019: 22.2%). Conclusion: A positive trend exists in leisure-time physical activity, but there was also an increase in social inequalities for physical activity in Brazil.

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Anna Hall, Madisen Hillebrant-Openshaw, Sierra Baca-Zeff, and Irene van Woerden

The amount of physical activity reported using accelerometry can vary depending on the method used. This study examined variability in four different methods of calculating moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among older adults, as well as lifestyle correlates of physical activity. The MVPA data were captured (n = 111; M age = 70.3 years, SD age = 6.3) using waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors and examined using 10-min bouted versus sporadic methods, and with cut points calibrated to older and younger adults. The sample, on average, did not meet national guidelines of 150 min/week of MVPA when using bouted methods, irrespective of cut point used. This was not the case for sporadic MVPA. More physical activity was reported for participants with two or more physical hobbies, but no association with social behavior was found. These results demonstrate the wide variability possible in reporting methods for accelerometry data and their relation to adherence rates for national health recommendations.

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Ken Muir, Eric Anderson, Keith D. Parry, and David Letts

Rugby has traditionally existed as a leading definer of masculinity in British culture, which has included overt homophobia. However, cultural attitudes toward homosexuality have improved rapidly in the 21st century. To assess the impact of wider societal change on gay rugby teams, we employed a multiple methods investigation across five gay rugby teams in England. Results show that, whereas athletes once played for these teams to escape homophobia in broader rugby culture, this is no longer true. Affiliation with gay clubs is now primarily for social purposes, and gay rugby clubs now protect the physical safety of gay men from being less prepared to play the game, whereas before it was safety from homophobia. This research shows that gay rugby clubs have undergone an organizational shift in response to the increased social acceptance of sexual minorities.

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Erhan Seçer and Derya Özer Kaya

Context: Dynamic stretching (DS) is typically suggested during warm-up protocols. Also, foam rolling (FR), which is applied with a foam cylinder, has increased popularity in recent years. However, the combined effects of DS and FR in improving flexibility, dynamic balance, and agility performance are unclear in current literature. Therefore, this study aim to evaluate and compare the acute effects of DS as well as DS followed by FR (DS + FR) on flexibility, dynamic balance, and agility in male soccer players. Design: This study was a crossover study with a within-subject design. Methods: Thirty volunteer male soccer players (mean age 18.80 [0.66] y) were included in the study. Each participant performed the 2 sessions (DS and DS + FR) on separate occasions in a randomized order, with an interval of 72 hours. All sessions were performed in the indoor gym at the sports club. Flexibility was assessed by sit-and-reach test, dynamic balance was assessed by Y balance test, and agility was assessed by t test. Results: Compared with the pretest results, significant improvement in flexibility was observed in both groups (change = 0.55, percentage change = 2.05, effect size [ES] = 0.15, P = .041; change = 0.64, percentage change = 2.36, ES = 0.20, P = .025; respectively). Balance scores did not significantly improve in either group (change = 0.40, percentage change = 0.45, ES = 0.09, P = .342; change = 0.93, percentage change = 1.02, ES = 0.23, P = .103; respectively). Agility performance significantly improved in both groups (change = −0.12, percentage change = −1.18, ES = 0.19, P = .021; change = −0.21, percentage change = −2.18, ES = 0.38, P = .005; respectively). Conclusions: Both DS and DS + FR improved flexibility and agility and did not affect balance. DS + FR was not superior to DS at improving flexibility and agility as compared only with DS. Both methods are effective warm-up protocols to augment factors related to injury risk and performance. It seems that further studies that investigate the combined effects of FR and DS are needed.