Adson Alves da Silva, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire, José Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes, Leonardo de Souza Fortes, Rodrigo Gustavo da Silva Carvalho, and José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior
This study investigated the association of coping strategies burnout symptoms in 228 Under-20 Brazilian soccer players in a career transition phase and compared these variables with the occurrence of injuries and professionalization. The instruments used in the study were the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Athletic Coping Strategies Inventory-28. Data analysis was conducted through generalized estimation equations, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression (p < .05). The results showed that coping was associated with physical and emotional exhaustion in both professional and nonprofessional players, and with a reduced sense of accomplishment only in young nonprofessional athletes who were in the career transition phase. It is concluded that young elite athletes who are in the transition phase of their career but have not signed a professional contract, use limited coping strategies and seem more exposed to stress (compared with those who have signed a contract), and are consequently more vulnerable to burnout symptoms.
Alannah K.A. McKay, Rachel McCormick, Nicolin Tee, and Peter Peeling
This study determined the impact of heat stress on postexercise inflammation and hepcidin levels. Twelve moderately trained males completed three, 60-min treadmill running sessions under different conditions: (a) COOL, 18 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; (b) HOTHR, 35 °C with speed maintained at 80% maximum heart rate; and (c) HOTPACE, 35 °C completed at the average running speed from the COOL trial. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3-hr postexercise and analyzed for serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hepcidin concentrations. Average HR was highest during HOTPACE compared with HOTHR and COOL (p < .001). Running speed was slowest in HOTHR compared with COOL and HOTPACE (p < .001). The postexercise increase in IL-6 was greatest during HOTPACE (295%; p = .003). No differences in the IL-6 response immediately postexercise between COOL (115%) and HOTHR (116%) were evident (p = .992). No differences in hepcidin concentrations between the three trials were evident at 3 hr postexercise (p = .407). Findings from this study suggest the IL-6 response to exercise is greatest in hot compared with cool conditions when the absolute running speed was matched. No differences in IL-6 between hot and cool conditions were evident when HR was matched, suggesting the increased physiological strain induced from training at higher intensities in hot environments, rather than the heat per se, is likely responsible for this elevated response. Environmental temperature had no impact on hepcidin levels, indicating that exercising in hot conditions is unlikely to further impact transient alterations in iron regulation, beyond that expected in temperate conditions.
Anqi Deng, Tan Zhang, Yubing Wang, and Ang Chen
Purpose: Informed by the constructivist learning theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of three continuing professional development (CPD) approaches on student learning in a healthful living physical education curriculum. Methods: Physical education teachers (n = 19) received one of the following CPD trainings: (a) Full Training, (b) Expedited Training, or (c) Self-Training. The effect of each CPD method was determined by tracking student learning (N = 3,418) with a two-level linear mixed model. Results: The results showed that Full Training CPD was able to generate the largest knowledge gain in both the Healthy Lifestyles Unit (β = 0.214, p < .001) and Cardio Fitness Club Unit (β = 0.184, p < .01) in comparison with the other two CPD approaches. Discussion: These findings advance our understanding of the role different CPD approaches play in enhancing student learning in the subjects of cardiorespiratory fitness and health lifestyles. Conclusions: The Full-Training CPD appears to benefit student learning the most followed by the Expedited-Training. The Self-Training would yield the least learning achievement.
Vitor Ciampolini, Martin Camiré, William das Neves Salles, Juarez Vieira do Nascimento, and Michel Milistetd
In the sports coaching field, learner-centered teaching (LCT) has been advocated as a viable approach to increasing learners’ involvement in the learning process. However, implementing LCT is not a simple undertaking as coach developers, and coaches have encountered dilemmas when it comes to shifting to LCT in coach education. This study aimed to investigate how LCT principles were implemented in a rugby coach education program through the perspectives of the researcher, the coach developer, and coaches. Participants included the researcher (i.e., first author), a coach developer, and 10 rugby coaches. The researcher observed three coach education courses, gathered descriptive and reflective field notes, and conducted individual semistructured interviews with both the coach developer and the 10 coaches. Findings shed light on the strategies adopted by the coach developer and the extent to which these strategies aligned with LCT principles. Coaches discussed how they enjoyed their active role in the courses and the approaches used by the coach developer to leverage learning. The discussion highlights the importance of coach developers in facilitating a learning process that is challenging, motivating, and supports coaches throughout the courses.
Keita Kinoshita, Eric MacIntosh, and Shintaro Sato
Basic psychological needs (BPN) are a construct that helps clarify the psychological mechanism to reach desirable outcomes for youth athletes. When BPN are undermined, people should be less likely to thrive. As mental toughness (MT) can reduce the negative effects of stressors, MT may buffer the negative effects of maladaptive motivation. This study investigated the mediating role of thriving on the relationships between BPN thwarting and important outcomes for youth athletes’ positive functioning. It also examined the buffering effects of MT. One hundred eighty-eight Canadian youth athletes (M age = 15.51) answered an online survey. The results demonstrated that thriving was a significant mediator, and the indirect relationships were moderated by MT. The indirect associations were nonsignificant for youth with high MT. The findings demonstrated that MT might decrease the negative impacts of BPN thwarting on thriving and important outcomes for young athletes.
Lara Lima Nabuco, Bryan Saunders, Renato André Sousa da Silva, Guilherme Eckhardt Molina, and Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis
This study investigated the effects of caffeine mouth rinse on cycling time to exhaustion (TTE) and physiological responses in trained cyclists. In a double-blinded randomized counterbalanced cross-over design, 10 recreationally trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: 32 ± 3 years, 72.8 ± 5.3 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 13.9% ± 3.3% body fat, peak power output = 289.4 ± 24.7 W) completed two TTE tests cycling at 75% of peak aerobic power following 24 hr of dietary and exercise standardization. Cyclists were administered 25-ml mouth rinses for 5 s containing either 85 mg of caffeine or control (water) every 5 min throughout the exercise tests. No significant improvement in TTE was shown with caffeine mouth rinse compared with control (33:24 ± 12:47 vs. 28:08 ± 10:18 min; Cohen’s dz effect size: 0.51, p = .14). Caffeine mouth rinse had no significant effect on ratings of perceived exertion (p = .31) or heart rate (p = .35) throughout the cycling TTE protocol. These data indicate that a repeated dose of caffeinated mouth rinse for 5 s does not improve cycling TTE in recreationally trained male cyclists. However, these findings should be taken with caution due to the small sample size and blinding ineffectiveness, while further well-design studies with larger samples are warranted.
Tyler Makepeace, Bradley W. Young, and Scott Rathwell
This study explored the views of Canadian Masters athletes (MAs; M age = 51, range 38–62; three men and five women) from 12 sports (10 individual and two team sports) on sport psychology for performance, experiential, and lifestyle enhancement. Using Braun and Clarke’s procedures for thematic analysis, the authors interpreted data from semistructured interviews deductively in relation to five strategic themes in which psychological skills are applied for performance enhancement. Deductive results demonstrated MAs used goal setting, imagery, arousal regulation, concentration, and self-confidence to enhance performance and obtain competitive advantages. The authors also analyzed data inductively to reveal themes related to experiential and lifestyle factors. Inductive results showed that MAs “placed priorities on sport,” which involved cognitively justifying the priority and framing sport as an outlet and as the embodiment of the authentic self. Social strategies associated with continued sport pursuit included cultivation of supportive social environments, social contracts/negotiations, social signaling, and social accountability. Strategies “to fit sport in” included integrating/twinning, scheduling, and managing commitment. Managing age-related concerns involved mindfulness and compensation strategies. Results show how MAs uniquely apply sport psychology to enhance their performance and to support sport adherence.
Claudio Quagliarotti, Matteo Cortesi, Giorgio Gatta, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Roberto Baldassarre, Veronica Vleck, and Maria Francesca Piacentini
Purpose : Although wearing a wetsuit while swimming, when permitted, is primarily for safety reasons (ie, to protect against hypothermia), changes in buoyancy, biomechanics, and exercise performance have been reported. This narrative review covers the benefits of different wetsuit models on performance in swimming and triathlon. Methods : A computer search of online databases was conducted to locate relevant published research until March 2021. After the screening process, 17 studies were selected for analysis. Results : Most of the selected studies involved pool swimmers or triathletes completing short or middle distances in a pool while using a full or a long sleeveless wetsuit. Swimming with wetsuit elicited significant improvements in performance (maximum 11%), mainly by decreasing drag and energy cost, by increasing buoyancy, and by affecting technique. Different rates of change in each factor were found according to swimming ability and wetsuit model. In addition, wearing a wetsuit was often rated as uncomfortable by athletes. Conclusions : Although improvement in swimming performance by wearing a wetsuit has been reported in the literature, the amplitude of the improvement remains questionable. The enhancement in swimming performance is attributable merely to improvements in propulsion proficiency and buoyancy, as well as a reduction in drag. The extent to which athletes are familiar with the use of a wetsuit, their swimming ability, and the wetsuit model may play important roles in this improvement. More studies simulating competition and comparing elite versus nonelite athletes are needed.