The purpose of this study was to predict Paralympian swimmers’ happiness as a result of winning 2016 Paralympic medals. Understanding potential antecedents of athletes’ happiness has theoretical and practical value. Medal winners (N = 138) had their facial expressions rated for happiness at the race finish. Three predictors were examined: finish place (i.e., first, second, or third), swimmers’ expectations for race place, and race time. A multiple-regression analysis predicting happiness was significant, F(3, 98) = 3.66, p < .015, accounting for 10% of the variance. Significant beta weights for race place (β = −0.551) and finishing higher than their 2015 world ranking (β = 0.551) indicated that higher-finishing swimmers were happier than lower-finishing swimmers, and swimmers who finished better than their 2015 ranking were happier than swimmers who finished lower than their ranking. The authors also found partial support for the counterfactual-thinking hypothesis for male swimmers and evidence of gender and country differences in happiness.
Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico, and Ellen Armstrong
Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner, and Sean Healy
The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which children and adolescents with and without visual impairments (VIs) met national physical activity, screen-time, and sleep guidelines. This observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health focused on children (age 6–12 yr) and adolescents (age 13–17 yr) with and without VIs. The sample included 241 (weighted n = 472,127) and 17,610 (weighted n = 28,249,833) children, and 255 (weighted n = 505,401) and 17,417 (weighted n = 20,071,557) adolescents with and without VIs, respectively. Chi-square statistics were computed to examine the degree to which participants with and without VIs met health-behavior guidelines. Children (p = .02) with VIs were less likely to meet screen-time guidelines, but adolescents with VIs were not (p = .87). VI status was not associated with the likelihood of meeting physical activity or sleep guidelines (p < .05). Low numbers of children and adolescents with and without VIs meeting health-behavior guidelines warrant targeted interventions aimed at enhancing engagement.
Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman, and Michelle A. Grenier
The aim of this case study was to describe the distinct approaches used by physical education (PE) teachers to accommodate students with disabilities in New York elementary school PE classes. The participants included 1 adapted PE specialist, 5 PE teachers, and 5 elementary school students with various impairments. Through thematic analysis, observations and interviews revealed 3 main approaches: (a) normalized instruction—traditional curriculum with no differentiation in the program; (b) differentiated instruction—adaptations tailored specifically to the needs of each student with disability; and (c) universally designed instruction based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and accessibility to all students. Differentiated instruction, entailing modifications in the program and pedagogical accommodations, was the most prevalent approach at the research site, but lessons based on UDL principles were also observed. In association, the 2 approaches (differentiated instruction and UDL) represented significant resources to accommodate students with disabilities in PE.
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall, and E. Andrew Pitchford
Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker, and David L. Nichols
The purpose of this study was to compare acute cardiometabolic responses to 3 modes of treadmill exercise in adults diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Eight elderly adults with PD (67.9 ± 3.0 yr) completed 1 session each on a land, aquatic, and antigravity treadmill at 50% body weight. Participants walked from 1 to 3 mph in 0.5-mph increments at 0% grade for 5 min at each speed. Heart rate, energy expenditure, blood pressure, and rating of perceived exertion were measured at rest and during exercise. All variables except diastolic blood pressure increased with speed on all treadmills (p < .001). At all speeds except 1.5 mph, heart rate was higher on the land treadmill than the antigravity treadmill (p < .05). Exercising on an aquatic or antigravity treadmill elicits similar submaximal physiologic responses to exercise on a land treadmill in adults with PD.
Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist, and Hanne H. Mong
Adapted physical activity (APA) is characterized by a strong orientation to professional practice. Currently, there exists limited empirical research about the professional status of APA in the context of rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe and understand the professional status, role, and work tasks of APA specialists in Norway. For the purpose of the study, the authors conducted group interviews with APA specialists and individual interviews with unit leaders at six rehabilitation institutions in the national specialist health care services. The results highlight the content of the work tasks, the roles in the cross-professional teams, the status in the institutions, and what the participants perceive to be the knowledge base for their profession. Although these results may be specific to the Norwegian context, the authors also discuss possible implications of their findings for APA in an international perspective.