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Seyed Abolfazl Tohidast, Rasool Bagheri, Ziaeddin Safavi-Farokhi, Mohammad Khaleghi Hashemian, and Cyrus Taghizadeh Delkhosh

Context: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common problem associated with impaired postural stability. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been developed to improve muscle function and reportedly improves postural stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 sessions of WBV on postural control during standing postural task in participants with CAI. Design: A controlled clinical trial study. Methods: Sixteen participants with CAI and 16 healthy participants aged between 20 and 40 years included in this study. They received WBV (30-Hz frequency, 3 series of four 45-s exercises with a 45-s rest) for a total of 12 sessions, 2 session per week for 6 weeks. Postural control was assessed by center of pressure (COP) parameters, including mean and SD in the anterior–posterior and medial–lateral displacement during single-leg standing. Assessments were done before and immediately after the first session and after the 12th session of WBV, with opened and closed eyes associated with easy and difficult cognitive tasks. Results: The results showed that the SD of COP displacement in the x-axis was significant in eyes opened and SD of COP displacement in the x- and y-axes were significant between groups in the eyes-opened, and eyes-closed conditions (P < .05). Analysis of variance indicated that the effect of WBV training was significant for the mean of COP displacement in the y-axis. Post hoc indicated that the effect of 12 sessions of WBV on the mean of COP displacement was significant in the CAI group (P < .05). However, the acute effect of WBV was not significant on the COP displacement in all axes (P > .05). Conclusion: Higher postural sway associated with postural cognitive interactions might be considered in the rehabilitation of CAI. Twelve sessions of WBV might induce some improvement in postural control with the method of WBV used in this study.

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Julie R. Steele

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Alicea E. Taylor-Meza, Kelsey N. Bahe, Michael A. Trevino, Jennifer L. Volberding, and Aric J. Warren

Focused Clinical Question: What is the efficacy of dry needling (DN) compared to ischemic compression point therapy for improving pain and pain pressure threshold (PPT) in patients experiencing myofascial neck pain? Clinical Bottom Line: There is low-level evidence suggesting DN has the potential to elicit greater improvements in pain and PPT relief compared to ischemic compression techniques for individuals with myofascial neck pain.

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Oğuz K. Esentürk and Erkan Yarımkaya

The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a WhatsApp-based physical activity for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fourteen parents and their children with ASD participated in the study. The intervention included parents conducting physical activities with their children with ASD for 4 weeks. Physical activity contents were provided to parents via the WhatsApp group. The data were collected through the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and a feasibility questionnaire adapted from previous studies examining the feasibility of web-based physical activities. Parents reported that WhatsApp-based physical activities were a feasible intervention to increase the physical activity level of their children with ASD and stated that the contents of the physical activity shared in the WhatsApp group were useful. The findings provided preliminary evidence for the use of WhatsApp-based physical activities to increase the physical activity level of children with ASD who stay at home due to the pandemic.

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Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner

This article focuses on two popular sports that can put male athletes at risk of developing an eating disorder: bodybuilding and running. Bodybuilders concentrate on gaining muscle mass and runners on leaning body mass. Based on the trans-contextual model of motivation, this study aimed to better understand the psychological mechanisms underlying eating disorders in these athletes. In all, 272 male bodybuilders and 217 male runners completed measures of sport motivation, theory of planned behavior variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention to gain muscle mass/lean body mass), and eating disorders (dieting, control, and bulimia behaviors). The results revealed satisfactory fit indices for both samples. Autonomous and controlled motivations for sport were positively directly and indirectly related to eating disorders in these athletes. This motivational mechanism needs more in-depth investigation, and motivational profiles might help distinguish athletes with and without eating disorders.

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Nicole Sordello, Tenli Bright, Taylor Truesdell, Jace Puckett, Jayme G. Baker, and Russell T. Baker

Focused Clinical Question: What are the effects of Total Motion Release® on shoulder range of motion compared with stretching in overhead athletes? Clinical Bottom Line: Total Motion Release® significantly improved acute dominant and nondominant shoulder ROM compared with dynamic warm-up and stretching protocols. The application of Total Motion Release® was also found to produce significantly larger increases in shoulder ROM and took substantially less time to complete when compared with dynamic warm-up protocols.

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Melanie A. Mason, Anne C. Russ, Ryan T. Tierney, and Jamie L. Mansell

Context: Exercise can cause fluctuations in blood glucose control in type 1 diabetics. For athletes with type 1 diabetes, maintenance of blood glucose within an ideal range may be difficult.Objective: To determine, in individuals with type 1 diabetes, the effectiveness of the closed loop control system versus the open loop control system in keeping blood glucose levels in the ideal range with exercise. Data Sources: A search of PubMed was conducted in June of 2020 using the Boolean phrases: (closed loop control system OR artificial pancreas) AND type 1 diabetes AND exercise AND ideal range AND adolescents, artificial pancreas AND glucose prediction AND exercise. Study Selection : Titles were reviewed for relevance, the abstract was then assessed for applicability, and finally the full text was examined. Articles were included that examined the percent of time in the ideal blood glucose range when exercise occurred during that day. Articles were excluded that didn’t compare the closed loop and open loop control systems and articles that did not involve exercise. Data Extraction : The PEDro scale was used to determine the methodological quality of the included studies. The measure addressed was the percent of time in the ideal blood glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL. 95% Confidence Intervals and Cohen’s D were calculated for each article. Data Synthesis : The search yielded 268 articles and 3 were selected for inclusion. The two randomized controlled trials scored 9/10 on the PEDro scale and the randomized two-arm crossover clinical trial scored 9/10 on the PEDro scale. Percent time spent in the ideal blood glucose range when exercise was performed was significantly higher in the closed loop group versus the open loop group in each of the three studies. In one randomized control trial, mean time in the ideal range was 71.3% (SD = 17.6, 95% CI = 62.5, 80.10) in the closed loop group versus 64.7% (SD = 13.3, 95% CI = 58.1–71.4) in the open loop group. Cohen’s D was 0.4. In the second randomized control trial, mean time in the ideal range was 73.5% (SD = 8.4, 95% CI = 70.1, 76.9) for the closed loop group versus 50% (SD = 26.8, 95% CI = 39.1, 60.9). Cohen’s D was 1.2. The two-arm crossover clinical trial resulted in a mean time in target range of 84.1% (SD = 11.5, 95% CI = 79.0, 89.2) in the closed loop group versus 68.7% (SD = 13.9, 95% CI = 62.5, 74.9) in the open loop group. Cohen’s D was 1.2. Conclusions : For adolescents with type 1 diabetes who exercise, the closed loop control system maintains blood glucose levels in the ideal range for a longer percent of time versus an open loop system. Each patient should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis with his/her healthcare team. Future research should examine the closed loop control system on specific energy systems.