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Intrinsic Foot Muscle Exercises With and Without Electric Stimulation

Katherine R. Newsham

Context: Exercising intrinsic foot muscles (IFMs) can improve dynamic balance and foot posture. The exercises are not intuitive and electrotherapy (neuromuscular electrical stimulation [NMES]) has been suggested to help individuals execute the exercises. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training IFM program on dynamic balance and foot posture and compare traditional training methods (TRAIN) with traditional training plus NMES on the perceived workload of the exercises, balance, and foot posture. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Thirty-nine participants were randomized to control, TRAIN, or NMES. TRAIN and NMES performed IFM exercises daily for 4 weeks; NMES received electrotherapy during the first 2 weeks of training. The Y-Balance test and arch height index were measured in all participants at baseline. The training groups were measured again at 2 weeks; all participants were measured at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after 4 weeks of no training. Perceived workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index) of exercises was assessed throughout the first 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. Results: A 4-week IFM training program demonstrated increases in Y-Balance (P = .01) for TRAIN and in arch height index (seated P = .03; standing P = .02) for NMES, relative to baseline. NMES demonstrated improvement in Y-Balance (P = .02) and arch height index standing (P = .01) at 2 weeks. There were no significant differences between the training groups. Groups were similar in the number responding to exercises in excess of minimal detectable change on all clinical measures. Perceived workload of the exercises decreased during the first 2 weeks of training (P = .02), and more notably at 4 weeks (P < .001). The groups did not differ in how they perceived the workload. Conclusions: A 4-week IFM training program improved dynamic balance and foot posture. Adding NMES in early phases of training provided early improvement in dynamic balance and foot posture, but did not affect perceived workload.

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Volume 32 (2023): Issue 4 (May 2023)

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Differences in Neurocognitive Functions Between Healthy Controls and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Male Athletes Who Passed or Failed Return to Sport Criteria: A Preliminary Study

Maryam Kiani Haft Lang, Razieh Mofateh, Neda Orakifar, and Shahin Goharpey

Background: Only 55% of anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed (ACLR) athletes return to competitive sports. This brings into question the usefulness of current return to sport (RTS) criteria. High cognitive demand of sport environment clarifies the value of incorporating neurocognitive tests when making decisions regarding the time of RTS. This preliminary study aimed to compare the neurocognitive functions between healthy controls and ACLR male athletes who passed or failed RTS criteria. Methods: A total of 45 male football players, including 15 ACLR who passed RTS criteria, 15 ACLR who did not pass, and 15 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to measure a battery of neurocognitive tasks, including speed of response, sustained attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. Results: The results revealed that compared with both the ACLR-passed and healthy groups, the ACLR-failed group showed greater values of 5-choice movement time (P = .02, P = .01, respectively) but lower values of stop signal reaction time (P = .03, P = .001, respectively) and proportion of successful stops variables (P = .02). In addition, compared with the healthy group, both the ACLR-failed and ACLR-passed groups indicated greater values in between errors (P < .001, P = .008, respectively) and reaction latency variables (P = .002, P = .01, respectively) but lower values of A′ (P < .001, P = .007, respectively), probability of hit (P < .001, P = .03, respectively), and percent correct trials variables (P = .006, P = .02, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings indicated deficits in neurocognitive functions in ACLR male athletes. In addition, poor performance in sustained attention, working memory, and cognitive flexibility measures observed in the ACLR-passed group highlighted the necessity for using a multimodal approach via implementation of neurocognitive measures in conjunction with the functional and muscular assessments when making RTS decisions.

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Effects of Gluteus Maximus Muscle Activity and Pelvic Width on Dynamic Frontal Plane Hip Joint Stiffness During Gait in Healthy Young Women

Shogo Takano, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Norifumi Fujii, Rei Konishi, Junya Ozawa, and Nobuhiro Kito

Context: Excessive hip adduction and internal rotation are abnormal movements that may lead to the onset and progression of patellofemoral pain. Previous studies have reported that lower dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness in the gait of women is associated with the magnitude of hip adduction and internal rotation angles. However, the factors contributing to the lack of dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness in the gait of young women are unclear. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness during the weight-acceptance phase of the gait of healthy young women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study included 30 healthy women between the ages of 18 and 30 years. The pelvic width/femur length ratio was calculated by dividing the pelvic width by the femur length. Data on hip kinematics and kinetics and activation of the gluteus maximus and medius, tensor fasciae latae, and adductor longus muscles during gait were collected using a motion capture system, force plates, and surface electromyography. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which each independent factor affected dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness. Results: In healthy young women, decreased dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness was associated with decreased muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the gait, as well as greater pelvic width/femur length ratio. Conclusions: Women with a relatively great pelvic width relative to femur length may have more difficulty in producing dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness. However, increasing the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus may contribute to increased dynamic frontal plane hip joint stiffness.

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Impact Magnitude and Symmetry in Females During Return to Sport Tasks Measured With Inertial Sensors

Courtney R. Chaaban, Camille King, and Darin A. Padua

Context: Impact magnitude, such as peak tibial acceleration, may be associated with lower extremity injury risk and can be measured with an inertial sensor. An understanding of impact magnitude across functional tasks could guide clinicians in exercise prescription during rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries. Objectives: To determine (1) differences in impact magnitude based on task and (2) which tasks have asymmetrical impact magnitude based on limb dominance. Design: Observational cohort design. Thirty-three healthy, recreationally active adult females participated in 1 testing session on a basketball court. Methods: Participants wore inertial sensors with embedded accelerometers on bilateral distal shanks. Participants completed 9 plyometric, speed, and agility tasks commonly utilized during the return to sport phase of lower extremity rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: Average impact magnitude (peak tibial acceleration in multiples of gravity, g) for each limb for each task. Analyses: We used a repeated-measures analysis of variance (factor: task) to determine the differences in impact magnitude based on task. We categorized tasks by magnitude of impact into low, medium, high, and very high impact. We utilized paired t tests for each task to compare limbs (dominant vs nondominant). Results: Impact magnitude differed based on task (P < .001). We classified tasks as low impact (≤10g; single-leg [SL] lateral jump, double-leg [DL] lateral jump); medium impact (11–20g; SL vertical jump, box drill); high impact (21–30g; modified T test, DL forward jump, SL forward jump); and very high impact (≥31g; sprint, DL tuck jump). Impact magnitude differed by limb in 3 tasks (DL forward jump, DL lateral jump, and box drill), with a higher impact on the dominant limb in each task. Conclusions: Impact magnitude differed based on task. While most tasks had symmetric impact magnitude between limbs, 3 tasks had a higher impact magnitude on the dominant limb.

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Instructions Promoting an External Focus Are More Effective for Altering Impact Forces in Female Runners

Jacy Zajac, Kelsey Redman, Emily Watkins, and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

Context: Previous studies have found that instructions promoting an external focus (EF) tend to be more effective for movement pattern retraining compared to instructions promoting an internal focus (IF), for a variety of movement tasks. However, few studies have examined how different types of instructions affect running mechanics associated with running-related injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of instructions promoting different attentional foci on impact forces during running. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Twenty uninjured female recreational runners ran at a self-selected speed with their typical pattern (no instructions condition) on an instrumented treadmill that measured ground reaction forces. Next, they were given 2 sets of instructions intended to alter their running pattern; one promoted an IF and the other promoted an EF. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare impact peaks and loading rates across the conditions (no instructions, IF, and EF), with post hoc tests conducted in the case of a significant omnibus test. Results: There were differences among the conditions in the impact peaks (P < .001) and loading rates (P < .001). Impact peaks were lower for the IF (P = .002) and EF (P < .001) conditions compared to the no instructions condition. Loading rates were lower for the EF condition compared to the no instructions (P < .001) and IF (P < .001) conditions; there was no difference between the IF and no instructions conditions (P = .24). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that instructions promoting an EF may be more effective at reducing loading rates during running compared to instructions promoting an IF. Clinicians should consider these findings when attempting to retrain a runner’s running pattern.

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The Relationship Between Eating Disorders, Disordered Eating, and Injury in Athletes: A Critically Appraised Topic

Karrie L. Hamstra-Wright, Kellie C. Huxel Bliven, John E. Coumbe-Lilley, Eddin Djelovic, and Jahnvi Patel

Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders (EDs) and disordered eating (DE) result in numerous physical and psychological complications for female and male athletes. Besides bone-related injury, little research exists investigating what injuries EDs and/or DE contribute to. Clinical Question: Are EDs and/or DE a risk factor for injury incidence in athletes? Summary of Key Findings: We searched for prospective studies assessing EDs or DE as a risk factor for injury in female or male athletes high school age and older. Our search returned 5 studies. One study found Eds, or DE were not a risk for any type of injury in female cross-country and track-and-field athletes. Two studies found a possible relationship between EDs or DE, as one contributing factor of others, in the incidence of bone stress injuries (BSIs) in female athletes who compete in various sports. One study found female, but not male, cross-country and track-and-field athletes with a history of EDs were more at risk for stress fractures than those without a history. One study found Eds, or DE were not a risk for BSI in female runners and triathletes. Clinical Bottom Line: Large and important gaps in the literature exist investigating injuries related to EDs or DE outside of BSIs. There is low–moderate evidence that EDs and/or DE are either a sole, or contributing, risk factor for BSIs in female athletes. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the idea that EDs and/or DE are a risk factor for a specific type of injury (BSI) in female athletes only.

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Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Persian Version of the Functional Arm Scale for Throwers

Masumeh Hessam, Mohammad Hossein Mousavi, Maryam Saadat, and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

Background: The Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST) is a reliable and valid region-specific tool designed to evaluate health-related quality of life in throwing athletes with upper-extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to adapt, translate, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Functional Arm Scale (FAST-Persian) for use in throwing athletes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted based on 5 steps of cross-cultural adaptation including forward translation, synthesis, backward translation, expert committee review, and pretesting. The final Persian questionnaire, along with Persian versions of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic questionnaires, was completed by 177 throwing athletes for validity analysis. After 7 to 14 days, the FAST-Persian was reanswered by 80 throwers, who had no changes in this time interval. Internal consistency and test retest reliability were used to evaluate reliability of the questionnaire. Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable changes were also calculated. Construct validity was determined by correlational analysis with Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic questionnaires. Dimensionality was evaluated with factor analysis. Result: Cronbachs alpha was .99, and the interclass correlation coefficient levels for total score and 5 subscales of the FAST-Persian ranged between .98 and .99. The standard error of measurement and smallest detectable changes were 3.17 and 8.80, respectively. The FAST-Persian had a high correlation with Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (r = .98, P < .0001) and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic (r = .98, P < .0001) scores. Factor analysis revealed one factor with a total variance of 75.23%. Conclusion: The FAST-Persian is a reliable and valid measurement tool that can be used to evaluate health-related quality of life in overhead athletes and throwers.

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Psychometric Properties of a Modified Athlete Burnout Questionnaire in the Collegiate Athletics Setting

Madeline P. Casanova, Ashley J. Reeves, and Russell T. Baker

Context: Mental health is an important component of holistic care in athletic settings. Burnout is one of many factors associated with poor mental health, and clinicians should assess for these symptoms. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) has been proposed as a measure of burnout in athletes; however, design concerns are prevalent within the scale, and psychometric analyses have resulted in inconsistent measurement properties, limiting the usefulness of the scale for accurate assessment of burnout in athletes. The objective of our study was to assess the factor structure of the Alternate Modified ABQ-15v2 using confirmatory factor analysis. If model fit was inadequate, a secondary purpose was to identify a psychometrically sound alternate ABQ model. Design: Observational study. Methods: Intercollegiate athletes and dancers pursuing a degree in dance (n = 614) were recruited from programs across the United States. Individuals had varied health statuses (eg, healthy, injured), scholarship support, and participated in a variety of intercollegiate sports. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the modified 15-item ABQ (Alternate Modified ABQ-15v2). Exploratory factor analysis and covariance modeling of a proposed alternate 9-item scale (ABQ-9) was conducted and multigroup invariance analysis was assessed across athlete category, class standing, and student-athlete scholarship status to assess consistency of item interpretation across subgroups. Results: The Modified ABQ did not meet recommended model fit criteria. The ABQ-9 met all recommended model fit indices but was not invariant across athlete category. Conclusions: The ABQ-9 may be a viable and efficient option for assessing burnout in the collegiate athletics setting. However, further research is needed to validate the ABQ-9 in a cross-validation study.

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Hip Abductor and External Rotator Strengths Correlate With Hop Symmetry in Men Athletes 2 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Zakariya H. Nawasreh, Mohammad A. Yabroudi, Mohamed N. Kassas, Sharf M. Daradkeh, and Khaldoon M. Bashaireh

Context: Hip muscle strength and hop performance limb symmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are not well studied. This study aimed to determine the differences in hip abductors’ (ABD) and external rotators’ (ER) muscle strength measures between limbs, and the relationship between hip ABD and ER muscle strengths and hop performance limb symmetry indices (LSIs) 2 years after ACLR. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Forty (level I/II) men athletes 2 years after unilateral ACLR completed 4 single-legged hop tests and involved hip ABD and ER strength testing (maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; isokinetic peak torque [PKTQ] at 60°, 180°, and 300°/s; and isotonic peak velocity at 75% of their MVICs). Muscle strength measures were normalized to body mass, and hop performances were reported as LSIs. Paired t test was used to determine strength differences between limbs, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between involved hip muscle strength measures and hop performance LSIs. Results: Hip ER-MVIC (involved: 60.26 [12.01], uninvolved: 63.68 [13.17] N·m/kg) and ER eccentric PKTQ at 60°/s (involved: 32.59 [9.28]; uninvolved: 35.73 [10.50] N·m/kg) were significantly different between limbs (P ≤ .018). Single-hop LSI correlated with hip ER-PKTQ at 180°/s (r = .354) and 300°/s (r = .324, P ≤ .041), while triple-hop LSI correlated with hip ER-MVIC (r = .320), concentric ER-PKTQ at 180°/s (r = .355), eccentric ER-PKTQ at 60°/s (r = .314), and hip ABD-PKTQ at 60°/s (r = .364) and 300°/s (r = .336, P ≤ .049). Conclusions: Men athletes demonstrated symmetrical hop performance and hip muscle strengths, except for ER hip’s MVIC and isokinetic eccentric peak torque at 60°/s 2 years after ACLR. Hop performance LSIs had a few, yet positive moderate relationships with involved hip ABDs and ER strength measures. This may indicate that hip ABD and ER muscle strength measures contribute to athletes’ hop performances 2 years after ACLR. Post-ACLR rehabilitation programs might incorporate hip muscle strengthening training to improve athletes’ functional performances.