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Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the University of Wisconsin Running Injury and Recovery Index in Turkish Runners

Elif Turgut, Mesut Burak Tascan, Ezgi Nur Can, Ismail Bayram, Evan O. Nelson, and Bryan Heiderscheit

Context: The University of Wisconsin Running Injury and Recovery Index (UWRI) was developed to evaluate the key elements that runners use to self-assess their own running ability following common running-related injuries. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the UWRI and to evaluate the psychometric properties of its Turkish version (UWRI-Tr) in runners. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: The study included 129 runners. The UWRI-Tr, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Hip Outcome Score, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure were applied for the validation purposes. Internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity of the UWRI-Tr were tested. Results: The test–retest reliability of the UWRI-Tr was excellent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .85 and a Cronbach α value of .84. There was a small to strong correlation among the UWRI-Tr and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (r = .278), Oswestry Disability Index (r = −.744), Hip Outcome Score (r = .684), The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (r = .758), and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (r = .498 and .767), indicating that its construct validity was appropriate for use with Turkish runners. Conclusions: The UWRI-Tr was shown to be a valid and reliable tool to use in clinical and research settings as a sport-specific measurement tool.

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Current Technologies and Practices to Assess External Training Load in Paralympic Sport: A Systematic Review

Eduardo Stieler, Marco T. de Mello, Ingrid L.B. Lôbo, Dawit A. Gonçalves, Renan Resende, André G. Andrade, Thiago F. Lourenço, Anselmo A.C. Silva, Henrique A. Andrade, Renato Guerreiro, and Andressa Silva

Context: Knowing the methods to assess the external load in Paralympic sports can help multidisciplinary teams rely on scientific evidence to better prescribe and monitor the athlete’s development, improving sports performance and reducing the risk of injury/illness of Paralympic athletes. Objectives: This review aimed to systematically explore the current practices of quantifying the external load in Paralympic sports and provide an overview of the methods and techniques used. Evidence Acquisition: A search in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO was carried out until November 2022. The measures of interest were objective methods for quantifying the external load of training or competition. The inclusion criteria for the studies were as follows: (1) peer-reviewed article; (2) the population were Paralympic athletes; (3) evaluated during training or competition; (4) reported at least one external load measure; and (5) published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. Evidence Synthesis: Of the 1961 articles found, 22 were included because they met the criteria, and 8 methods were identified to quantify the external load in training or competition in 8 Paralympic sports. The methods varied according to the characteristics of the Paralympic sports. To date, the devices used included an internal radiofrequency-based tracking system (wheelchair rugby) a miniaturized data logger (wheelchair tennis, basketball, and rugby); a linear position transducer (powerlifting and wheelchair basketball); a camera (swimming, goalball, and wheelchair rugby); a global positioning system (wheelchair tennis); heart rate monitors that assess external load variables in set (paracycling and swimming) and an electronic timer (swimming). Conclusions: Different objective methods were identified to assess the external load in Paralympic sports. However, few studies showed the validity and reliability of these methods. Further studies are needed to compare different methods of external load quantification in other Paralympic sports.

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The Influence of Athletic Identity on Mental Health Symptoms During Retirement From Sport

Kylie Roberts, Kiersten Kuhlman, Megan Byrd, and Tamerah Hunt

Clinical Scenario: Athletic identity (AI) can be defined as, “the degree to which an individual identifies with an athlete role, and the values, and social networks associated with that identity,” and can pose a problem when athletes do not explore themselves outside of sport. This lack of identity development beyond athletics has the potential to lead to the development of a high AI. High AI in athletes can have positive effects in areas such as performance, however, high AI may also pose negative consequences. The development of such an identity can limit the adaptive responses to substantial life changes such as retirement from sport. This inability to adapt may thereby contribute to mental health problems during the transition. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between athletic identity and mental health symptoms so clinicians may provide support to enable positive outcomes after retirement from sport. Clinical Question: What is the influence of athletic identity on mental health symptoms in athletes retiring from sports? Summary of Key Findings: (1) High athletic identity contributes to increased mental health symptoms following retirement. (2) Athletic identity had no relationship to mental health symptoms during the preretirement phase of an athlete’s career Clinical Bottom Line: The findings suggest that there is high-quality evidence to support that AI has no relationship with mental health symptoms during the preretirement phase and that athletes with high AI are more likely to experience mental health symptoms during their transition out of or retirement from sport. Strength of Recommendation: The grade of B is recommended by the Strength of Recommendation taxonomy for consistent, limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence that high AI has a strong relationship to mental health symptoms following retirement in athletes.

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Intervention of Refractory Arthrofibrosis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Case Report

Ling Zhang, Shuai Fan, and Bin Cai

Objectives: Although nonsurgical and surgical management of knee arthrofibrosis has been reported in the literature, there is little information on the effect of procedural treatment modalities of refractory arthrofibrosis on clinical outcomes. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention of refractory knee arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and investigate long-term clinical outcomes after procedural intervention. Methods: A 27-year-old male presented with decreased range of motion (ROM), patellar mobility, strength, and knee joint function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of his left knee. After failed conservative management, the patient underwent manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) to release scar tissue. Following MUA, the emphasis of comprehensive physiotherapy was on decreasing inflammation, relieving pain, and maintaining patellar mobility while increasing knee joint ROM and strength. Knee ROM, patellofemoral motion, gait, and quadriceps recruitment were measured 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after MUA. Results: At 2-year follow-up after MUA, the patient continued to present with decreased ROM and quadriceps strength compared to the contralateral knee, but had returned to a running program and reported knee joint dysfunction no longer interfered with his daily activities. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates signs and symptoms that could indicate knee arthrofibrosis and introduces procedural intervention for refractory arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

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Sensorimotor or Balance Training to Increase Knee-Extensor and Knee-Flexor Maximal Strength in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Critically Appraised Topic

Martin Alfuth and Elena Vieten

Clinical Scenario: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex progressive synovial joint disease that results in impaired muscle function, including a considerable loss of maximal strength and power. Exercise therapies, such as sensorimotor or balance training and resistance training, are frequently used to improve muscle function, mobility, and quality of life, but their impact on maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA is not well understood. Focused Clinical Question: Does sensorimotor or balance training improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength compared with strength training or no intervention in patients with KOA? Summary of Key Findings: Results from 4 fair- to good-quality randomized controlled/clinical trials (level 1b) revealed inconsistent grade B evidence regarding the effect of sensorimotor or balance training to improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA. Two studies, one good-quality study and one fair-quality study, showed significant strength improvements, and 2 good-quality studies demonstrated no significant strength enhancements. Clinical Bottom Line: Sensorimotor or balance training may be useful to improve maximal strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients with KOA; however, it seems that this depends on a training duration of at least 8 weeks and the use of unstable devices to induce destabilization of patients’ balance, initiating neuromuscular adaptations. Strength of Recommendation: Due to inconsistent evidence (grade B), the true effect of sensorimotor or balance training to improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA remains unclear and needs to be further investigated.

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The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale

Manolya Acar, Demet Öztürk, Mert Demirsöz, and Mustafa Agah Tekindal

Context: The Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (DPAS) was recently developed to evaluate the disability process and health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DPAS in physically active individuals with musculoskeletal injury. Methods: The study sample comprised 64 physically active individuals with musculoskeletal injury aged 16–40 years. The DPAS was translated into Turkish according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Short Form-36 was used concurrently to test the construct validity. The test–retest reliability of the Turkish version of the scale assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach α was calculated for internal consistency. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis carried out on the Turkish version of the DPAS was confirmed. Cronbach α was calculated to be .946. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between .593 and .924 (P < .001). The Turkish version of the scale showed significant correlations with domains of the Short Form-36 (P < .05). When the sensitivity of the study was evaluated, the highest correlation was found between DPAS total score and impairments (r = .906, P = .001), and the lowest correlation was  between DPAS total score and quality of life (r = .637, P = .001). Conclusion: The Turkish version of the DPAS is a reliable, valid, and practical tool. The Turkish version of the DPAS can be used by health professionals to understand quality of life, the disability process, and activity limitations in Turkish-speaking physically active people after musculoskeletal injuries.

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Weight-Bearing Exercises on Slideboard Increase Quadriceps and Hamstring Activation Levels and Improve Hip- and Knee-Flexion Angles in Physically Active Individuals

Cigdem Demir and Gulcan Harput

Context: Slideboards are commonly used in exercise programs, but there is limited information about how they affect muscle activities during exercise. We aim to compare the activation levels of quadriceps and hamstring muscles and hip- and knee-flexion angles during lunge and single-leg squat exercises between normal ground and slideboard in physically active individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty healthy individuals (age: 23.83 [2.84] y, body mass index: 21.75 [1.72] kg/m2) were included in the study. Surface electromyography was used to measure vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus activation levels during reaching and returning phases of the forward, lateral, and back lunges and squats that were performed on the normal ground and slideboard. Exercises were performed at a slow pace (60 beats/min). Hip- and knee-flexion angles during the exercises were evaluated by using 2-dimensional motion analysis. Repeated measures of analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Vastus medialis and vastus lateralis activation levels were greater during reaching and returning phases of the exercises on slideboard compared with normal ground (P < .05). However, semitendinosus and biceps femoris activity were greater only during the returning phase of the forward lunge (P < .001) and the returning phase of the back squat (P = .002, P = .009, respectively). Hip-to-knee flexion ratios were closer to 1 when the forward lunge (P < .001), back lunge (P = .004), and forward squat (P = .001) exercises were performed on a slideboard. Conclusion: In exercise programs that target the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, slideboards can be effectively used in exercise progressions as they can increase muscle activity. Moreover, squat and lunge exercises on slideboard with a slow pace may also be helpful for improving the balance between hip- and knee-flexion angles.

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Lower Extremity Physical Performance Tests for the Assessment of Athletes via Telehealth are Reliable

Maycon Thomas Moises Jales, Germanna de Medeiros Barbosa, Gustavo Viotto Gonçalves, Hilmaynne Renaly Fonseca Fialho, Letícia Bojikian Calixtre, and Danilo Harudy Kamonseki

Context: Lower extremity physical performance tests (PPTs) have been widely used in sports rehabilitation and are commonly performed in person. However, some situations may disrupt the in-person health care delivery, such as social distancing due to the pandemic, traveling, and living in remote locations. Those situations may require adjustments in planning and applying measurement tests, and telehealth has become an alternative. Nevertheless, the reliability of lower extremity PPT tests via telehealth is still unknown. Objectives: To verify the test–retest reliability, SEM, and the minimum detectable change (MDC95) of PPTs via telehealth. Methods: Fifty asymptomatic athletes completed 2 assessment sessions 7 to 14 days apart. The assessment via telehealth consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the single-, triple-, and side-hop tests, and the long jump test, in random order. Intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM, and MDC95 were calculated for each PPT. Results: Single-hop test showed good to excellent reliability, with SEM and MDC95 ranging from 6.06 to 9.24 cm and 16.79 to 25.61 cm, respectively. The triple-hop test showed excellent reliability, with SEM and MDC95 ranging from 13.17 to 28.17 cm and 30.72 to 78.07 cm, respectively. Side-hop tests showed moderate reliability, with SEM and MDC95 ranging from 0.67 to 1.22 seconds and 2.00 to 3.39 seconds, respectively. The long jump test showed excellent reliability, with SEM and MDC95 ranging from 5.34 to 8.34 cm and 14.80 to 23.11 cm, respectively. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability of those PPTs via telehealth was acceptable. The SEM and MDC were provided to assist clinicians in interpreting those PPTs.

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Nutritional Supplements in the Clinical Management of Tendinopathy: A Scoping Review

Ian Burton and Aisling McCormack

Introduction: Tendinopathy has a high prevalence and incidence in the general population and among athletes, with a lack of consensus among medical practitioners on optimal management strategies. The objective of this scoping review was to evaluate current research on the use of nutritional supplements for treating tendinopathies, including what supplements have been used and what outcomes, outcome measures, and intervention parameters have been reported. Methods: Databases searched included Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and AMED. This scoping review considered primary studies investigating nutritional supplements for tendinopathies and was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews. Results: A total of 1527 articles were identified with 16 included in the review. Studies investigated a range of nutritional supplements in the clinical management of various tendinopathies, including several commercially available proprietary blends of several ingredients. TendoActive (mucopolysaccharides, type I collagen, and vitamin C) was used in 2 studies, TENDISULFUR (methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed collagen, L-arginine, L-lysine, vitamin C, bromelain, chondroitin, glucosamine, Boswellia, and myrrh) was used in 3 studies, and Tenosan (arginine-L-alpha ketoglutarate, hydrolyzed collagen type I, methylsulfonylmethane, vitamin C, bromelain, and vinitrox) was used in 2 studies. Collagen peptides were used in 2 studies, with omega-3 fatty acids, combined fatty acids and antioxidants, turmeric rhizome combined with Boswellia, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric, vitamin C in isolation and combined with gelatin, and creatine investigated in one study each. Conclusion: Despite a paucity of studies to date, findings from this review suggest that several nutritional compounds may be beneficial in the clinical management of tendinopathies, by exerting anti-inflammatory effects and improving tendon healing. Nutritional supplements may have potential as an adjunctive method to standard treatment methods such as exercise, where their pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, and structural tendon effects may augment the positive functional outcomes gained from progressive exercise rehabilitation.

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Physical Performance and Mobility Tests Using Telehealth: A Feasibility Study With Athletes

Maycon Thomas Moises Jales, Germanna Medeiros Barbosa, Gustavo Viotto Gonçalves, Hilmaynne Renaly Fonseca Fialho, Letícia Bojikian Calixtre, and Danilo Harudy Kamonseki

Context: Physical performance tests (PPTs) and mobility tests have been widely used in sports rehabilitation. However, the feasibility of PPTs and mobility tests via telehealth is unknown. Objectives: To verify the feasibility of PPTs and mobility tests to assess athletes via telehealth. Design: This is a feasibility study. Participants: Athletes enrolled in a sports team or club for at least 2 years and with previous enrollment in a competitive league were recruited through advertisements on social media. The athletes included in this study (mean age = 25.9 y, from different sports) performed a battery of PPTs and mobility tests for the lower-extremity or upper-extremity and trunk, according to their sport modality. Main Outcome Measure: The feasibility was assessed with recruitment, success, and dropout rates. In addition, athletes’ perceptions of easiness, satisfaction, and safety during the lower-extremity or upper-extremity and trunk PPTs and mobility tests were assessed. Results: Seventy-three athletes were included, between January and April 2021: 41 were allocated to the lower-extremity and 32 to the upper-extremity and trunk PPTs and mobility test, according to their sports modality. The overall dropout rate was 20.55%; >89% of the athletes agreed that the PPTs and mobility tests via telehealth were easy to perform, >78% were satisfied, and >75% felt safe during the assessments. Conclusion: This study indicated that these 2 batteries of performance and mobility tests via telehealth are feasible to assess the lower and upper-extremities, and the trunk of athletes, considering the adherence, athletes’ perception of easiness, satisfaction, and safety.