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NATA News & Notes

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Athletic Trainers’ Perceptions of Patient-Reported Outcomes After Completing a Clinic-Wide Implementation Program

Lauren M. Gardner, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, and Melissa M. Montgomery

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are important for capturing patients’ perspectives on quality of life and aiding in provision of whole-person patient care; yet, PROs are not routinely used in athletic training practice. We investigated the athletic trainers’ perceptions of using PROs after they had completed a required PRO implementation program. Athletic trainers had positive perceptions after integrating PROs into clinical practice. Barriers associated with PRO use may be improved with a support structure that requires accountability and provides resources such as reminders and professional development to recognize ways that PROs can be used to improve patient care.

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The Neuromatrix Theory of Pain and Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping: Improving Understanding of Pain Catastrophizing in Individuals With ACL Reconstruction and Knee Osteoarthritis

Francesca M. Genoese, Matthew S. Harkey, and Shelby E. Baez

Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and early knee osteoarthritis symptoms commonly exhibit psychological impairments, such as pain catastrophizing. Pain catastrophizing is a negative cognitive–affective response to anticipated or actual pain and has been linked to greater pain intensity and decreased function in this population. However, an examination of the neuromatrix theory of pain and the transactional theory of stress and coping may help to explain the development and consequences of pain catastrophizing in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and early knee osteoarthritis symptoms. Exploration of these theoretical models will help clinicians better understand the impact of pain catastrophizing on post-injury outcomes, as well as help to identify intervention strategies to address maladaptive psychological responses and improve outcomes for individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and early knee osteoarthritis symptoms.

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Clinician Impact on Athlete Recovery and Readiness in a 24-Hour Training Cycle

Dana P. Golden and Jay N. Hertel

This paper explores a 24-hr training cycle and how clinicians contribute to an athlete’s transition from recovery to readiness. The cycle is divided into three phases: immediate, intermediate, and extended. Phase break down is meant to provide wellness prioritization for the athlete and how the clinician can facilitate sustainable performance during a competitive season.

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Influence of Self-Reported Concussion History and a Dual-Task Paradigm on Multidirectional Gait and Cognitive Performance of Athletes

Maria K. Talarico, Matthew P. Brancaleone, Kayla E. Berezne, James A. Onate, and Laura C. Boucher

Single-task assessments may not identify lingering effects following a concussion that may be detected under dual-task (DT) paradigms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a novel DT paradigm and concussion history on gait and cognitive performance. Hockey and rugby club college athletes (n = 26) completed a box drill and the color and word Stroop test under single task and DT. Distance ambulated around the box, response rate, and accuracy were recorded to calculate dual-task cost. Mean comparisons and linear mixed-effects regression models were performed. Compared to athletes with no concussion history, those with a history had a greater motor than cognitive dual-task cost and were 3.15% less accurate in Stroop responses (p < .01). Athletes walked 0.72-m shorter distance under DT compared to single task (p = .04). A multidirectional, low-tech DT assessment may highlight long-term motor and cognitive deficits among athletes with a concussion history, which will provide valuable information to prepare and track performance within an athletic season.

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Determining Varying Levels of Cultural Competence in Athletic Trainers Compared to Other Healthcare Providers When Treating Lesbian or Gay Patients

Emily Madrak, Jennifer L. Volberding, and Ashley M. Harris

The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and ally or asexual cultural competence has become a point of emphasis in patient care in the profession of athletic training. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of cultural competence (CC) in athletic trainers (ATs) compared with other health care providers when treating lesbian/gay (L/G) patients as well as at which sexual orientation and gender demonstrated greater CC in L/G patients by using the Gay Affirmative Practice Scale. Health care providers include physicians, nurses, and mental health counselors (MHC). Statistical analysis comparing the occupations, sexual orientations, and gender, each in one-way analysis of variances, (including nonparametric modifications) demonstrated significant results for occupation, χ2(8) = 69.888, p < .05 and sexual orientation χ2(3) = 22.250, p < .05, indicating post hoc analyses. Post hoc demonstrated significance in occupation (AT and MHC, AT and nursing, and MHC and nursing) and sexual orientation (heterosexual and L/G). The result of these analyses provides evidence that ATs have less CC when caring for L/G patients compared with MHC and nursing. Finally, L/G providers demonstrate a greater CC than their counterparts, when caring for L/G patients.

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The Effect of Maximalist Running Shoes on Impact Loading: A Critically Appraised Topic

Janice K. Loudon and Marcie Swift

Clinical Scenario: Running injuries are common in runners. The use of maximal cushioned shoes (MAX) has been suggested as a preventive measure for reducing impact loading and thus running-related injuries. Clinical Question: Do maximalist running shoes reduce impact loading compared to traditional shoes in runners? Summary of Key Findings: A search was performed for articles exploring MAX on impact loading in runners. Five articles were included in this critically appraised topic. All were case-controlled laboratory studies that compared the MAX to a traditional running shoe. None of the studies found a reduction in impact loading with use of the MAX. Clinical Bottom Line: Based on five case-controlled studies, a MAX does not reduce impact loading on level surfaces or downhill running. Based on mixed results, the MAX may increase impact forces during level and downhill running. Future research should include randomized controlled trials that assess impact forces after the runner has adapted to the MAX and after running ultradistances. Strength of Recommendation: In agreement with the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, the consistent results from five Level III intervention studies designate that there is Level C evidence that MAX do not reduce impact loading during a single running trial.

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Effects of Physical Activity Timing and Intensity on the Occurrence and Risk of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Rebecca L. Potter, Erin M. Moore, and Rebecca M. Lopez

Clinical Scenario: Athletic trainers should be aware of how physical activity may influence the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Clinical Question: Does the timing and intensity of physical activity affect the occurrence and risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with T1D? Results of the Search: Four studies meeting the inclusion criteria were found and included in the appraisal. Three studies were prospective observational cohorts, and one was a randomized case-crossover study. Clinical Bottom Line: Adolescents with T1D may be at greater risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia after performing 30–60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the late afternoon or evening. Implications: Athletic trainers should educate adolescents with T1D and their parents about the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia after MVPA, and work in collaboration with the diabetes care physician to ensure prevention techniques are included in the patient'’s diabetes care plan. Level of Evidence: Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy Grade B.

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Efficacy of a Mulligan Concept Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glide Technique for Cervicogenic Headache: A Critically Appraised Topic

Kyle North, Koki Kawaguchi, Michelle Perri, Megan Mormile, Russell T. Baker, James May, and Alan Nasypany

Clinical Question : In adults with cervicogenic headache (CGH), what are the effects of a clinician-applied Mulligan Concept C1–C2 rotational sustained natural apophyseal glide on cervicogenic symptomology? Clinical Bottom Line: Both Level 2b and Level 4 evidence of Grade B quality exists to support using the C1–C2 rotational sustained natural apophyseal glide to decrease CGH severity and participant-reported neck disability immediately posttreatment, while also increasing cervical range of motion in adult patients with CGH headaches and a positive flexion–rotation test. Further research should examine the long-term effects of the C1–C2 rotational sustained natural apophyseal glide technique on cervical range of motion, flexion–rotation test results, and CGH frequency and severity. In addition, the flexion–rotation test should be explored as a standard diagnostic assessment in CGH cases.

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High-Load Squat Training Improves Sprinting Performance in Junior Elite-Level Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic

Lars H. Lohmann, Konstantin Warneke, Stephan Schiemann, and Irene R. Faber

Practical Question: Is high-load squat training beneficial in improving sprinting performance in junior elite-level soccer players? Clinical Bottom Line: There is Level 3 evidence to support the validity of high-load squat training as a measure to improve sprinting performance in junior male elite-level soccer players. All three studies included showed significant increases in soccer-related sprinting performance.