Browse

You are looking at 111 - 120 of 1,980 items for :

  • Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology x
  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

The Home Advantage in the National Basketball Association Conference Finals and Finals Series From 1979 to 2019: A Mediation Analysis of Offensive and Defensive Skills

Jeffrey D. Graham, Bolun Zhang, Denver M.Y. Brown, and John Cairney

This study examined the home advantage effect in decisive National Basketball Association Conference Finals and Finals series playoff games from 1979 to 2019 (the 3-point shot era). We also examined the potential contribution of various offensive- and defensive-based skills and whether these skills mediated the relationship between game status (decisive vs. nondecisive) and outcome (win vs. loss). Overall, we found evidence of a home court advantage with the home team winning 63% of the decisive playoff games and 66% of the nondecisive playoff games. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and regular season win percentage, the home team had significantly more defensive rebounds and steals in Game 5 when trailing 3–1 going into that game. Mediation analyses did not reveal any significant findings when examining the impact of decisive game status on performance through offensive and defensive skills, thus suggesting there are other explanations for the home advantage effect.

Restricted access

Application of the Multi-Process Action Control Model to Predict Physical Activity During Late Adolescence

Matthew Y.W. Kwan, Denver M.Y. Brown, Pallavi Dutta, Imran Haider, John Cairney, and Ryan E. Rhodes

The aim of this study was to apply the Multi-Process Action Control model to examine how the additions of regulatory and reflexive processes predict physical activity (PA) behaviors among adolescents. Our sample included 1,176 Grade 11 students (M age = 15.85 ± 0.38) recruited from a large school board in Southern Ontario. Participants completed a questionnaire including measures of self-reported PA and PA cognitions derived from the Multi-Process Action Control model. Results found the reflective process explaining 16.5% of the variance in PA, with the additions of regulatory and reflexive processes significantly improving the explained variance by 5.1% and 8.2%, respectively. Final models revealed coping planning (estimate = 45.10, p = .047), identity (estimate = 55.82, p < .001), and habit (estimate = 64.07, p < .001) as significant predictors of PA. Findings reinforce the need for integrative models to better understand PA, with coping planning, habit formation, and development of an active identity to be salient targets for intervention during adolescence.

Restricted access

Bulls in a China Shop: Narcissism, Intragroup Conflict, and Task Cohesion

Matt W. Boulter, James Hardy, Ross Roberts, and Tim Woodman

When given opportunities for personal glory in individual settings, people high in narcissism excel. However, less is known about narcissists’ influence in team contexts. Across two studies (utilizing cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal designs) involving 706 athletes from 68 teams in total, we tested a conceptual model linking narcissism to task cohesion, via intragroup conflict, moderated by narcissistic group composition. We tested a new sports-oriented measure of intragroup conflict using Bayesian estimation and evaluated our theorizing using a multilevel conditional indirect effect hybrid model. Across both studies, we found that narcissism influenced perceptions of task cohesion via process conflict only, with a negative influence at low narcissistic group composition that was weakened (Study 1) or nullified (Study 2) at high narcissistic team composition. Collectively, these findings offer the first example of how narcissism influences task cohesion in team settings and the contextual effects of narcissistic group composition.

Restricted access

Experience-Dependent Modulation of Rubber Hand Illusion in Badminton Players

Masanori Sakamoto and Hirotoshi Ifuku

Badminton players have a plastic modification of their arm representation in the brain due to the prolonged use of their racket. However, it is not known whether their arm representation can be altered through short-term visuotactile integration. The neural representation of the body is easily altered when multiple sensory signals are integrated in the brain. One of the most popular experimental paradigms for investigating this phenomenon is the “rubber hand illusion.” This study was designed to investigate the effect of prolonged use of a racket on the modulation of arm representation during the rubber hand illusion in badminton players. When badminton players hold the racket, their badminton experience in years is negatively correlated with the magnitude of the rubber hand illusion. This finding suggests that tool embodiment obtained by the prolonged use of the badminton racket is less likely to be disturbed when holding the racket.

Restricted access

Volume 43 (2021): Issue 6 (Dec 2021)

Restricted access

“Negative Things That Kids Should Never Have to Hear”: Exploring Women’s Histories of Weight Stigma in Physical Activity

Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Angela Meadows, and Eva Pila

Scholars have proposed that cumulative experiences of anti-fat bias and stigma contribute to detrimental physical activity experiences, as well as social and health inequities. The objective of this research was to explore how enacted weight stigma experiences are constructed and impact women’s physical activity experiences long term. Eighteen women who identified as having had negative experiences related to their body weight, shape, or size in physical activity contexts participated in semistructured interviews. Using reflexive thematic analysis, four themes were identified: (a) norms of body belonging, (b) distancing from an active identity, (c) at war with the body, and (d) acts of resistance. These findings deepen understandings of how historical experiences of weight stigma can have longstanding consequences on physical activity cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. To equitably promote physical activity, it is imperative that movement spaces (e.g., fitness centers, sport organizations) both target anti-fat stigma and adopt weight-inclusive principles.

Restricted access

Understanding Relationships Between Social Identity, Sport Enjoyment, and Dropout in Adolescent Girl Athletes

Ross M. Murray and Catherine M. Sabiston

The sport team social environment plays an important role in athletes’ experiences, including their enjoyment of sport, and these experiences may influence athletes’ decision to continue or dropout of sport. In the current study, enjoyment was examined as a mediator of the relationship between social identity and sport dropout. Adolescent girls (N = 150) who participated on a community sports team completed a questionnaire assessing social identity with their team and enjoyment of sport, and their sport participation status was measured 1 year later. Controlling for age and socioeconomic position, a path model showed that enjoyment mediated the relationship between social identity and sport dropout, bootstrapped unstandardized indirect effect = −0.04, 95% confidence interval [−0.08, −0.01]; p < .01. Fostering social identity with one’s sport team may contribute to greater enjoyment of sport and reductions in sport dropout in adolescent girls.

Restricted access

Measurement of Physical Activity Self-Efficacy in Adults With Obesity: A Latent Variable Approach to Explore Dimensionality, Temporal Invariance, and External Validity

Nicholas D. Myers, André G. Bateman, Adam McMahon, Isaac Prilleltensky, Seungmin Lee, Ora Prilleltensky, Karin A. Pfeiffer, and Ahnalee M. Brincks

The objective of this study was to improve the measurement of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) in adults with obesity. To accomplish this objective, a latent variable approach was used to explore dimensionality, temporal invariance, and external validity of responses to a newly developed battery of PASE scales. Data (N baseline  = 461 and N 30 days postbaseline = 427) from the Well-Being and Physical Activity Study (ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03194854), which deployed the Fun For Wellness intervention, were analyzed. A two-dimensional factor structure explained responses to each PASE scale at baseline. There was strong evidence for at least partial temporal measurement invariance for this two-dimensional structure in each PASE scale. There was mixed evidence that the effectiveness of the Fun For Wellness intervention exerted a direct effect on latent PASE in adults with obesity at 30 days postbaseline (i.e., external validity) of this two-dimensional structure.

Restricted access

Digest

Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

Restricted access

Visual Strategies Underpinning the Spatiotemporal Demands During Visuomotor Tasks in Predicting Ball Direction

Alessandro Piras, Matthew A. Timmis, Aurelio Trofè, and Milena Raffi

We investigated gaze behavior of expert goalkeepers during the prediction of penalty kicks in different spatiotemporal constraints: penalties taken from 11 and 6 m. From 11 m, goalkeepers were more successful in predicting ball direction, with longer movement time initiation and a visual strategy with more fixations and greater saccade rates than penalties from 6 m, where they exhibited fewer fixations with higher microsaccade rates. As long as the opponent’s distance is large and time pressure low, gaze can be frequently shifted between the kicker’s body and the ball, due to the low cost of saccades. Conversely, when the objects are close, there is increased reliance on foveal and parafoveal information. In conclusion, when the spatiotemporal constraint is less severe, goalkeepers adopt a visual strategy with more fixations and small saccades. When the spatiotemporal constraint is more severe, they rely on peripheral vision to monitor kickers’ movements through the use of microsaccades.