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Peter A. Hastie, Wei Wang, Hairui Liu, and Yaohui He

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Play Practice instruction on the badminton content knowledge and skill of a cohort of Chinese physical education majors. Method: Seventy-two second-year students participated in semester-long courses following either the principles of Play Practice or skill-focused instruction. A control/comparison group experimental design with pre- and postmeasures was used in this study. Separate analyses of variance with repeated measures (Time × Group) were conducted to examine the effects of Play Practice and skill-focused instruction for each of four dependent variables: (a) forehand clear, (b) tactical understanding, (c) game performance, and (d) specialized content knowledge. Results: Students from both conditions made significant improvements in all four variables across the semester. However, students in the Play Practice condition showed significantly greater gains in tactical understanding, game performance, and specialized content knowledge. In particular, while 75% of students who experienced Play Practice reached the 3.0 benchmark score for adequate specialized content knowledge, only 8% of students in skill-focused instruction reached this standard.

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Maxime Mastagli, Aurélie Van Hoye, Jean-Philippe Hainaut, and Benoît Bolmont

Purpose: The present study investigated the relationship between an empowering motivational climate and pupils’ concentration and distraction in physical education, mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction and by positive and negative affect. Method: The participants were 425 French pupils (M age = 15.36, SD age = 0.82) from 21 high schools, who filled in a questionnaire regarding the study variables. This cross-sectional study used multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships. Results: Good fit indices were found in the data from the theoretical model. An empowering motivational climate was found to be related to concentration. Competence need satisfaction was related to concentration and distraction. This association was mediated by positive and negative affect, which in turn was related to concentration and distraction. Conclusion: Teachers can improve pupils’ concentration and positive affect and reduce distraction and negative affect by supporting an empowering motivational climate and fostering competence need satisfaction.

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Tara B. Blackshear

Purpose: Black women are devalued in many aspects of American culture—physical education (PE) is no exception. Platforms to celebrate Black women’s excellence in PE are scarce. Drawing on Black feminist thought and critical race theory, the purpose of this article is to describe and explain the experiences of Black women physical educators who earned PE Teacher of the Year. Participants: Two Black women share their experiences as physical educators and PE Teachers of the Year. Methods: Qualitative narrative inquiry consisting of semistructured, virtual group interviews was employed. Results: Four core themes were identified: (a) invisibility, (b) superwoman syndrome, (c) affirming role models, and (d) culturally responsive pedagogies. Discussion/Conclusion: Elevating Black women’s voices in PE requires a deconstruction of limited exposure opportunities. Normalizing Black excellence in PE acknowledges that Black women’s intersectionalities create enormous challenges yet foster students’ success. Black women physical educators benefit students and society.

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André Filipe Paulino da Silva Bento, Luis Carrasco Páez, and Armando Manuel de Mendonça Raimundo

Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the utility of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs integrated into physical education classes. Method: Searches of electronic databases from January 2008 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria: Applied to adolescents aged 10–19 years; applied in school settings; reported results on physical fitness, physical activity (PA), and motivation; at least for 4 weeks; and randomized controlled trials. Studies with adolescents with physical or intellectual limitations were excluded, as well as other interventions parallel to HIIT. Results: Fourteen studies were included. All works present significant improvements in physical fitness and PA. Improvements in body composition recorded, at most, a moderate effect size. HIIT is presented as a powerful stimulus on cardiorespiratory fitness. Improvements in PA registered, a least, a moderate effect size. Conclusions: HIIT in the school context has great potential in improving physical fitness and PA in adolescents. HIIT efficiency (about 10 min) reflects the wide applicability that these protocols can have in physical education classes and great adaptation to the facilities.

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Abraham García-Fariña, Francisco Jiménez Jiménez, and M. Teresa Anguera

Purpose: This study aims to identify socioconstructivist communication patterns used by physical education teachers and their evolution after participating in a training intervention. Method: The authors analyzed 812 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) employed by two physical education teachers in two teaching modules using observational methodology. The data were analyzed by polar coordinate analysis. Results: In the pretraining phase, Teacher 1 presents two discursive patterns with questions–answers–literal incorporation of student-answers into the teachers’ communication, and another formed by praise questions. Teacher 2 generated praise-questions only. In the posttraining phase, Teacher 1 maintains one of the initial patterns and generates another consisting of questions-incorporation of students’ actions into the teacher’s communication. Teacher 2 incorporates two new patterns composed of information demands that are associated with the use of a specific frame of reference, or meta-statement. Discussion: The use of polar coordinate analysis revealed the presence of communication patterns and their evolution. Conclusion: The training intervention has resulted in changes in the communicative patterns of teachers. The custom-made instrument has allowed knowing the discursive strategies

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Julian North, Bettina Callary, Kristen Dieffenbach, Larissa Galatti, Sergio Lara-Bercial, Christine Nash, and Donna O’Connor

This article provides an overview of the context, details, and outcomes of a consultation and review of the International Council for Coaching Excellence’s interactions and engagements with, and service provision to, the international sport coaching research community. The consultation and review were undertaken by the International Council for Coaching Excellence Research Committee (RC). The paper starts with a description of the sport coaching research landscape. It then provides details of the role of the International Council for Coaching Excellence, its Research Fair, and RC. The paper then offers an overview of the formal initiation of the consultation and review at the Global Coach Conference, Japan 2019, as well as a brief overview of the approach used. It then details the consultation findings providing direction for the RC moving forward. The resultant revised RC terms of reference are included as an appendix.

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Kelly L. Simonton, Karen L. Gaudreault, and Caitlin Olive

Purpose: Marginality and isolation have been found to negatively impact physical educators. Despite a significant body of research, few studies have included important personal attributes like teacher emotions. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of teacher marginality, isolation, and emotions (enjoyment, anger, and anxiety) with intrapersonal job beliefs (turnover intention, perceived accomplishment, and organizational commitment). Methods: Physical educators (N = 227; 51% female) from the United States participated in the study. Results: Experienced teachers reported higher enjoyment, those with less experience reported more anger, and teachers in urban and secondary schools reported higher turnover intention. Hierarchical regression showed emotions add significant variance in relationships with job beliefs, and the interaction between marginality and emotions may help explain teacher perceptions and agency. Discussion/Conclusion: Marginality and teacher emotions, together, impact teacher well-being and job beliefs. Emotions warrant further investigation and may provide mechanisms to understand reactions to marginality and coping.

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Hongying Wang, Bo Shen, and Jin Bo

Purpose: With the belief that situational interest (SI) can be characterized as being triggered and maintained, the authors conducted this study to identify the underlying structure of SI and to develop a new measurement in physical education. Method: There were 558 students from two urban high schools in Shanghai, China, who served as participants. The authors developed the Situational Interest Inventory-Physical Education through three systematic stages. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results: An exploratory factor analysis provided preliminary support, with a model comprising three components: triggered SI, maintained SI feeling, and maintained SI value. The three-component model was further corroborated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Its predictive validity was supported with significant correlations to in-class engagement. Conclusion: The findings lend initial evidence to the theoretical mechanism of interest development. Clarifying how SI is related to the mode of teachers’ instruction and learning content may help design effective motivational strategies and nurture long-term individual interest.

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Noah M.A. d’Unienville, Maximillian J. Nelson, Clint R. Bellenger, Henry T. Blake, and Jonathan D. Buckley

Purpose: To prescribe training loads to improve performance, one must know how an athlete is responding to loading. The maximal rate of heart-rate increase (rHRI) during the transition from rest to exercise is linearly related to changes in endurance exercise performance and can be used to infer how athletes are responding to changes in training load. Relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance. Methods: Eighteen recreational strength and power athletes (13 male and 5 female) were tested on a cycle ergometer for rHRI, 6-second peak power output, anaerobic capacity (30-s average power), and blood lactate concentration prior to (PRE), and 1 (POST1) and 3 (POST3) hours after fatiguing high-intensity interval cycling. Results: Compared with PRE, rHRI was slower at POST1 (effect size [ES] = −0.38, P = .045) but not POST3 (ES = −0.36, P = .11). PPO was not changed at POST1 (ES = −0.12, P = .19) but reduced at POST3 (ES = −0.52, P = .01). Anaerobic capacity was reduced at POST1 (ES = −1.24, P < .001) and POST3 (ES = −0.83, P < .001), and blood lactate concentration was increased at POST1 (ES = 1.73, P < .001) but not at POST3 (ES = 0.75, P = .11). rHRI was positively related to PPO (B = 0.19, P = .03) and anaerobic capacity (B = 0.14, P = .005) and inversely related to blood lactate concentration (B = −0.22, P = .04). Conclusions: rHRI is linearly related to acute changes in anaerobic exercise performance and may indicate how athletes are responding to training to guide the application of training loads.

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST, VOLUME 8, ISSUE 3