A well-planned periodized approach allows swimmers to achieve peak performance at the major national and international competitions. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of endurance training for highly trained swimmers described by the training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Studies that investigated the effect of the periodization of training in swimming, with the training load (volume, TID) and periodization reported, were included in the systematic review. Results: A total of 3487 studies were identified, and after removal of duplicates and elimination of papers based on title and abstract screening, 17 articles remained. A further 8 articles were excluded after full text review, leaving a final total of 9 studies in the systematic review. The evidence levels were 1b for intervention studies (n = 3) and 2b for (observational) retrospective studies (n = 6). The sprint swimmers typically followed a polarized and threshold TID, the middle-distance swimmers followed a threshold and pyramidal TID, and the long-distance swimmers primarily followed a pyramidal TID. The periodization model identified in the majority of studies selected is characterized by wave-like cycles in units like mesocycles to promote physiological adaptations and skill acquisition. Conclusions: Highly trained swimmers follow a training volume and TID based on their primary event. There is a need for further experimental studies on the effects of block and reverse periodization models on swimming performance. Although observational studies of training have limited evidence, it is unclear whether a different training/periodization approach would yield better results.
José María González-Ravé, Francisco Hermosilla, Fernando González-Mohíno, Arturo Casado, and David B. Pyne
S. Sofie Lövdal, Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh, and George Azzopardi
Purpose: Staying injury free is a major factor for success in sports. Although injuries are difficult to forecast, novel technologies and data-science applications could provide important insights. Our purpose was to use machine learning for the prediction of injuries in runners, based on detailed training logs. Methods: Prediction of injuries was evaluated on a new data set of 74 high-level middle- and long-distance runners, over a period of 7 years. Two analytic approaches were applied. First, the training load from the previous 7 days was expressed as a time series, with each day’s training being described by 10 features. These features were a combination of objective data from a global positioning system watch (eg, duration, distance), together with subjective data about the exertion and success of the training. Second, a training week was summarized by 22 aggregate features, and a time window of 3 weeks before the injury was considered. Results: A predictive system based on bagged XGBoost machine-learning models resulted in receiver operating characteristic curves with average areas under the curves of 0.724 and 0.678 for the day and week approaches, respectively. The results of the day approach especially reflect a reasonably high probability that our system makes correct injury predictions. Conclusions: Our machine-learning-based approach predicts a sizable portion of the injuries, in particular when the model is based on training-load data in the days preceding an injury. Overall, these results demonstrate the possible merits of using machine learning to predict injuries and tailor training programs for athletes.
Stephen S. Cheung
Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of a learned preperformance routine (PPR) with an intuitively developed one before a simulation race on advanced swimmers’ speed and motor efficiency, as well as self-efficacy and emotional regulation. In total, 46 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers were stratified to either the control (intuitively developed PPR) or the PPR condition, which included four instructional sessions aimed at developing a PPR. A simulated competitive race was organized before and after the intervention. For each simulation, speed and motor efficiency were measured during the race, and self-efficacy and emotions, after the completion of the race. Nonsignificant effects were revealed for speed, motor efficiency, and self-efficacy following the intervention. However, performing a learned PPR prior to racing significantly influenced the swimmers’ emotional state. These results provide some support for the effect of a PPR on emotional regulation prior to a swimming race.
Lasse Ishøi, Kasper Krommes, Mathias F. Nielsen, Kasper B. Thornton, Per Hölmich, Per Aagaard, Juan J.J. Penalver, and Kristian Thorborg
Purpose: Increasing age, high quadriceps strength, and low hamstring muscle strength are associated with hamstring strain injury in soccer. The authors investigated the age-related variation in maximal hamstring and quadriceps strength in male elite soccer players from under-13 (U-13) to the senior level. Methods: A total of 125 elite soccer players were included from a Danish professional soccer club and associated youth academy (first tier; U-13, n = 19; U-14, n = 16; U-15, n = 19; U-17, n = 24; U-19, n = 17; and senior, n = 30). Maximal voluntary isometric force was assessed for the hamstrings at 15° knee joint angle and for the quadriceps at 60° knee joint angle (0° = full extension) using an external-fixated handheld dynamometer. Hamstring-to-quadriceps strength (H:Q) ratio and hamstring and quadriceps maximal voluntary isometric force levels were compared across age groups (U-13 to senior). Results: Senior players showed 18% to 26% lower H:Q ratio compared with all younger age groups (P ≤ .026). Specific H:Q ratios (mean [95% confidence interval]) were as follows: senior, 0.45 (0.42–0.48); U-19, 0.61 (0.55–0.66); U-17, 0.56 (0.51–0.60); U-15, 0.59 (0.54–0.64); U-14, 0.54 (0.50–0.59); and U-13, 0.57 (0.51–0.62). Hamstring strength increased from U-13 to U-19 with a significant drop from U-19 to the senior level (P = .048), whereas quadriceps strength increased gradually from U-13 to senior level. Conclusion: Elite senior soccer players demonstrate lower H:Q ratio compared with youth players, which is driven by lower hamstring strength at the senior level compared with the U-19 level combined with a higher quadriceps strength. This discrepancy in hamstring and quadriceps strength capacity may place senior-level players at increased risk of hamstring muscle strain injuries.
Laurel Whalen, Jeanne Barcelona, Erin Centeio, and Nathan McCaughtry
When COVID-19 shuttered Michigan schools, 52 elementary and middle schools statewide were in various stages of implementation of comprehensive health programs, including the integration of physical activity, physical education, and nutrition education. To support the transition to a virtual learning environment, #HealthyKidsQuarantined was launched, providing virtual physical activity, physical education, and nutrition education curriculum and resources. Content was distributed weekly via e-mail to teachers and families alongside a daily social media campaign that disseminated resources to a national audience. Results identified significant content usage by schools (21,300 views/downloads) and engagement through social media (9,800 views/downloads). Teachers, students, and families expressed value in the health content provided, stating it was a support needed in a time of chaos. This study suggests that providing virtual health content may be a feasible way to sustain school and family investment in comprehensive youth health. Furthermore, by utilizing multiple dissemination strategies, virtual programming may be an effective mechanism to expand reach.
Sebastian Kaufmann, Olaf Hoos, Aaron Beck, Fabian Fueller, Richard Latzel, and Ralph Beneke
Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic relevance of type of locomotion in anaerobic testing by analyzing and comparing the metabolic profile of the Bosco Continuous Jumping Test (CJ30) with the corresponding profile of the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Methods: A total of 11 well-trained, male team-sport athletes (age = 23.7 [2.2] y, height = 184.1 [2.8] cm, weight = 82.4 [6.4] kg) completed a CJ30 and WAnT each. During the WAnT, power data and revolutions per minute were recorded, and during the CJ30, jump height and jumping frequency were recorded. In addition, oxygen uptake and blood lactate concentration were assessed, and metabolic profiles were determined via the PCr-LA-O2 method. Results: In the CJ30, metabolic energy was lower (109.3 [18.0] vs 143.0 [13.1] kJ, P < .001, d = −2.302), while peak power (24.8 [4.4] vs 11.8 [0.5] W·kg−1, P < .001, d = 3.59) and mean power (20.8 [3.6] vs 9.1 [0.5] W·kg−1, P < .001, d = 4.14) were higher than in the WAnT. The metabolic profiles of the CJ30 (aerobic energy = 20.00% [4.7%], anaerobic alactic energy [W PCr] = 45.6% [4.5%], anaerobic lactic energy = 34.4% [5.2%]) and the WAnT (aerobic energy = 16.0% [3.0%], anaerobic alactic W PCr = 34.5% [5.0%], anaerobic lactic energy = 49.5% [3.3%]) are highly anaerobic. Absolute energy contribution for the CJ30 and WAnT was equal in W PCr (49.9 [11.1] vs 50.2 [11.2] kJ), but anaerobic lactic energy (37.7 [7.7] vs 69.9 [5.3] kJ) and aerobic energy (20.6 [5.7] vs 23.0 [4.0] kJ) were higher in the WAnT. Mechanical efficiency was substantially higher in the CJ30 (37.9% [4.5%] vs 15.6% [1.0%], P < .001, d = 6.86), while the fatigue index was lower (18.5% [3.8%] vs 23.2% [3.1%], P < .001, d = −1.38) than in the WAnT. Conclusions: Although the anaerobic share in both tests is similar and predominant, the CJ30 primarily taxes the W PCr system, while the WAnT more strongly relies on the glycolytic pathway. Thus, the 2 tests should not be used interchangeably, and the type of locomotion seems crucial when choosing an anaerobic test for a specific sport.