The authors aimed to provide an overview of the evidence on the effects of exercise in people with Alzheimer’s disease through a comprehensive review of the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A literature search was performed in CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The AMSTAR-2-Tool was used for the quality assessment. Twenty-three reviews fulfilled the criteria. Most of the reviews investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. The largest effects of exercise were seen in terms of improved cognition by multiple exercises. The majority of the reviews were rated as being of moderate quality and none were classified as having high quality. Exercise is an effective way to treat Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and has a low incidence of related adverse events. As most reviews were evaluated as low-moderate quality, caution is needed in the interpretation of the results.
Alexandro Andrade, Thais Cristina Siqueira, Anderson D’Oliveira, and Fábio Hech Dominski
Jessica Murphy, Christopher Gladney, and Philip Sullivan
Student athletes balance academic, social, and athletic demands, often leading to increased levels of stress and poor sleep. This study explores the relationship between sleep quality, sleep hygiene, and psychological distress in a sample of student athletes. Ninety-four student athletes completed the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, and four components from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Age, gender, and sport were also collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index revealed that 44.7% of student athletes received ≥6.5 hr of sleep each night; 31% of athletes showed signs of severe mental illness according to the K6. Stepwise regression predicted K6 scores with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale scores as independent variables. A significant model accounting for 26% of the variation in K6 scores emerged; sleep schedule and sleep disturbances were significant predictors. Athletic staff should highlight the importance of sleep for mental health; suggestions on how to help athletes are provided.
Jessica Brooke Kirby and Mary Ann Kluge
There is much to learn about the lived experience of sport participation in later life for older women. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 18 women volleyball players, ages 70 years and older. Four themes emerged from an inductive analysis of in-depth, semistructured interviews: (a) seeking and enjoying optimal challenge, (b) demonstrating physical competence through skill mastery, (c) commitment to continue playing while navigating declining competence, and (d) connection with teammates and positive reinforcement. Following the inductive analysis, the themes were analyzed using personal assets frameworks as lenses through which to further understand how these women’s psychosocial development through sport compared with youth and Masters sport. Challenge, competence, connection, and commitment to continue were salient personal assets identified for these women. Researchers should continue to explore how positive sport development across the lifespan can be both universal and nuanced for diverse cohorts of athletes.
Lisa-Marie Schütz, Geoffrey Schweizer, and Henning Plessner
The authors investigated the impact of video speed on judging the duration of sport performance. In three experiments, they investigated whether the speed of video presentation (slow motion vs. real time) has an influence on the accuracy of time estimation of sporting activities (n 1 = 103; n 2 = 100; n 3 = 106). In all three studies, the time estimation was more accurate in real time than in slow motion, in which time was overestimated. In two studies, the authors initially investigated whether actions in slow motion are perceived to last longer because the distance they cycled or ran is perceived to be longer (n 4 = 92; n 5 = 106). The results support the hypothesis that the duration of sporting activities is estimated more accurately when they are presented in real time than in slow motion. Sporting officials’ judgments that require accurate time estimation may thus be biased when based on slow-motion displays.
Junxin Li, Sarah L. Szanton, Miranda V. McPhillips, Nada Lukkahatai, Grace W. Pien, KerCheng Chen, Melissa D. Hladek, Nancy Hodgson, and Nalaka S. Gooneratne
This randomized controlled pilot trial tested the preliminary effect of a 24-week mHealth-facilitated, personalized intervention on physical activity (PA) and sleep in 21 community-dwelling older adults. The intervention included a personalized exercise prescription, training, goal setting, and financial incentives. mHealth strategies, including self-monitoring, motivational messages, activity reminders, and phone coaching, were used to facilitate PA participation. PA and sleep were measured using actigraphy and questionnaires at baseline and 8-, 16-, and 24-week visits. Participants in the intervention group had lower objective PA levels at 24 weeks than at 8 and 16 weeks, although levels of PA remained higher than at baseline. Compared with the control group, the intervention increased PA at 8, 16, and 24 weeks; improved subjective sleep quality at 16 and 24 weeks; and increased actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep efficiency at 24 weeks. mHealth PA interventions may benefit PA and sleep in older adults. Strategies for maintaining long-term PA behavioral changes are needed.
Erika Tatiana Paredes Prada, Diana Marina Camargo-Lemos, and Rogério César Férmino
Background: Open Streets initiatives have allowed for physical activity (PA) in cities worldwide. However, few studies have evaluated the use of small Open Streets in low- and middle-income countries, such as those in Latin America. Thus, this study aimed to describe participation and PA level of users in the Recreovia program in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during 5 Sundays from September to November 2017. Recreovia use was evaluated at 4 strategic points according to street accessibility (2 points) and aerobics class areas (2 points), using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities. Results: A total of 38,577 observations were made (34,969 on streets and 3608 in aerobics class areas). Men (63%) and adults (62%), with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (98%) were observed on streets. The most common PAs were biking (50%), walking/dog walking (36%), and jogging (9%). In aerobics class areas, the most common groups were female (65%) and adults (89%). Participants were engaged in moderate to vigorous PA (91%). Conclusion: Measurement of number of participants at moderate to vigorous levels of PA was high. A difference between sexes and age in these street and aerobic class area groups was also observed.
Daniel J. Madigan, Henrik Gustafsson, Andrew P. Hill, Kathleen T. Mellano, Christine E. Pacewicz, Thomas D. Raedeke, and Alan L. Smith
The present editorial provides a series of perspectives on the future of burnout in sport. Specifically, for the first time, seven burnout researchers have offered their opinions and suggestions for how, as a field, we can progress our understanding of this important topic. A broad range of ideas are discussed, including the relevance of the social context, the value of theory and collaboration, and the use of public health frameworks in future work. It is hoped that these perspectives will help stimulate debate, reinforce and renew priorities, and guide research in this area over the coming years.
Sasha M. Kullman, Brittany N. Semenchuk, Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Laura Ceccarelli, and Shaelyn M. Strachan
Adjusting identity standards may be preferable to relentless pursuit or abandonment of an identity when facing an identity-challenging life transition. Self-compassion (SC) can help people adjust to challenges. The authors examined whether SC was associated with identity adjustment, exercise, and the moderating effect of identity–behavior discrepancy in 279 women exercisers who reported reduced exercise in motherhood. Participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale and reported the extent of and reflected on their identity discrepant behavior (reduced exercise). Reactions to discrepancy (acceptance, shame, guilt, and rumination), correlates of identity adjustment (subjective well-being, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and role conflict), and exercise behavior were assessed. SC associated positively with acceptance, correlates of successful identity adjustment, and exercise behavior. SC associated negatively with shame, rumination, and correlates of unsuccessful adjustment. SC may help exercise-identifying women who exercise less after becoming mothers adaptively cope with this identity challenge and continue exercising.
Linda S. Pescatello, Emily A. Hennessy, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Anne F. Fish, Lynette L. Craft, and Blair T. Johnson
Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) have proliferated with a concomitant increase in reviews of SRs/MAs or “meta-reviews” (MRs). As uncovered by the 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (PAGAC), there is a paucity of best practice guidance on MRs on physical activity health-related research. This manuscript aims to fill this gap. Methods: In total, the PAGAC conducted 38 literature searches across 3 electronic databases and triaged 20,838 titles, 4913 abstracts, and 2139 full texts from which 1130 articles qualified for the PAGAC Scientific Report. Results: During the MR process, the following challenges were encountered: (1) if the SR/MA authors had limited experience in synthesis methodology, they likely did not account for risk of bias in the conclusions they reached; (2) many SRs/MAs reviewed the same primary-level studies; (3) many SRs/MAs failed to disclose effect modifier analyses; (4) source populations varied; (5) physical activity exposures were nonstandardized; and (6) dose–response effects or effect modification of the physical activity exposure could not be identified. Conclusions: Using examples from the PAGAC Scientific Report, we provide (1) a high-level introduction to MRs; (2) recommended steps in conducting a MR; (3) challenges that can be encountered; and (4) guidance in addressing these challenges.
Jason R. Themanson, Alivia Hay, Lucas Sieving, and Brad E. Sheese
This study investigated the relationships among neural activity related to pitch stimuli and task feedback, self-regulatory control, and task-performance measures in expert and novice baseball players. The participants had their event-related brain potentials recorded while they completed a computerized task assessing whether thrown pitches were balls or strikes and received feedback on the accuracy of their responses following each pitch. The results indicated that college players exhibited significantly larger medial frontal negativities to pitch stimuli, as well as smaller reward positivities and larger frontocentral positivities in response to negative feedback, compared with novices. Furthermore, significant relationships were present between college players’ neural activity related to both pitches and feedback and their task performance and self-regulatory behavior. These relationships were not present for novices. These findings suggest that players efficiently associate the information received in their feedback to their self-regulatory processing of the task and, ultimately, their task performance.