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Survey of National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletic Trainers’ Administration of the National Wrestling Coaches Association Weight Certification Program

Samuel L. Konrath and Dale R. Wagner

Despite implementation in 1997, published research detailing the administration of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s minimum weight certification program is lacking. This survey aimed to determine how athletic trainers administer this program. Thirty-five of 77 (45.5% response rate) athletic trainers for National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I wrestling programs responded. Most (74.3%) had ≥5 years of experience measuring body composition, and nearly all (97.1%) used skinfold calipers. Caliper type varied, but everyone used the same measurement sites and procedure to estimate minimal weight. There appears to be consistency in the administration of minimal wrestling weight standards across National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I programs.

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Use of the Alvarado Score for Assessment of Abdominal Pain in a Women’s Soccer Player

Courtney Gray

The Alvarado score is used in emergency rooms to determine probability of appendicitis and provide a recommendation for care. A women’s soccer player presented to the athletic training clinic with right lower quadrant pain. She was evaluated and due to a differential diagnosis of appendicitis, the Alvarado score was used for screening. Based on her score, she was referred to the emergency room and, after diagnostic testing, was found to have a ruptured ovarian cyst. The Alvarado score was helpful in determining the need for referral when used in the clinical setting.

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Benefits and Barriers Associated With Intention to Participate in Injury Prevention Programs in Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Cadets

Emily H. Gabriel and Cameron J. Powden

Identification of factors which may influence participation in exercise-related injury prevention programs within Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) cadets is an important step in improving adoption and adherence rates. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with intention to participate in an exercise-related injury prevention program within ROTC cadets. Theory of planned behavior scale perceived benefits (B = 3.65, η2 = .36, p = .001) and Health Belief Model Scale perceived benefits (B = 3.46, η2 = .31, p = .01) had a large positive association with intention to participate. Theory of planned behavior scale perceived barriers (B = −2.28, η2 = .37, p = .001) had a large negative association with intention to participate. Implementation strategies for exercise-related injury prevention programs may need to focus on the benefits and barriers of participation to increase adoption and adherence.

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Burnout in Secondary School Athletic Trainers, Part I: Correlations With Situational Variables

Leslie W. Oglesby, Andrew R. Gallucci, Anna K. Porter, and Ashlyne P. Elliott

Burnout is a psychological syndrome that is found at higher rates in health care professionals, including athletic trainers. Situational variables such as social support, salary, work–family conflict, and workload have been associated with burnout in collegiate athletic trainers. The purpose of this study was to see whether such relationships exist within a sample of secondary school athletic trainers. Analyses suggest that increases in work–family conflict and decreases in social support were significantly correlated with increased burnout in our sample. These findings suggest that modification of work–life balance and support network are more important in combating burnout than modification of workload or salary.

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Reliability and Validity of the Clinometer Smartphone Application for Measuring Knee Flexion

Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Russell T. Baker, Jayme Baker, and Samantha Hanna

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Clinometer smartphone application. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated for devices (i.e., goniometer, Clinometer, bubble inclinometer) using intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer validity were also assessed. Intrarater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficients = .70 − .83) and interrater reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = .63 − .72) across devices. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer validity were supported across analyses. The Clinometer is comparable to a goniometer or bubble inclinometer for measuring prone knee flexion.

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Continuing Education Assessment

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Volume 27 (2022): Issue 4 (Jul 2022)

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Effects of Plyometric Training on Sonographic Characteristics of Quadriceps Muscle and Patellar Tendon, Quadriceps Strength, and Jump Height in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players

Gulcan Harput, Ugur Toprak, Fatma Filiz Colakoglu, Emirhan Temel, Suzan Saylisoy, and Gul Baltaci

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric training on vastus lateralis (VL) and patellar tendon size, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and vertical jump height in adolescent female volleyball players. Thirty players (age mean ± SD: 15.7 ± 1.1 years) participated in a 6-week Sportsmetrics plyometric training program. VL thickness, echo intensity, and patellar tendon cross-sectional area were assessed by real-time ultrasound. Isokinetic quadriceps strength and vertical jump were assessed. The VL thickness, quadriceps strength, and VJ height increased and VL–echo intensity decreased after training. We recommended that 6-week Sportmetrics plyometric training program may be implemented in adolescent female volleyball programs especially before the beginning of the volleyball season.

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Postoperative Psychological Factors Are Associated With Perceived Improvement Following Hip Arthroscopy

Kate N. Jochimsen, James D. Doorley, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Brian Noehren, Stephen T. Duncan, and Cale A. Jacobs

Psychological factors are receiving increased attention for their role in musculoskeletal health, surgical outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures. This study examined if preoperative and 3-month postoperative pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy differ between patients who report greater versus less than 75% overall improvement from baseline to 3 months after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Of 43 patients, 13 (30.2%) reported <75% improvement 3 months after surgery. Patients who reported <75% improvement had higher pain catastrophizing (p = .04), higher kinesiophobia (p = .02), and lower self-efficacy (p = .007) 3 months after surgery. None of the preoperative psychological factors differed between groups (p ≥ .67). Findings suggest that patients with maladaptive psychological responses 3 months following surgery may also perceive suboptimal surgical improvement.

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Burnout in Secondary School Athletic Trainers, Part II: Correlations With Substance Use

Leslie W. Oglesby, Andrew R. Gallucci, Anna K. Porter, and Ashlyne P. Elliott

Burnout has been associated with increased energy drink consumption and increased occurrence of binge drinking of alcohol in collegiate athletic trainers (ATs), but this has not been examined in ATs in other work settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and use of various substances in secondary school ATs. Statistical analyses found a significant direct relationship between emotional exhaustion and energy drink consumption, but no other findings were statistically significant. These findings suggest that other factors besides burnout are contributing to a high rate of binge drinking of alcohol in secondary school ATs.