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Service-Learning and Physical Education in Preservice Teacher Training: Toward the Development of Civic Skills and Attitudes

María Maravé-Vivas, Jesús Gil-Gómez, Odet Moliner García, and Carlos Capella-Peris

Purpose: This research analyzes the effects of a Service-learning program on the development of civic attitudes and skills on preservice teachers (n = 98). They provided a direct service of motor sessions aimed at children with functional diversity. Method: The topic was approached using a mixed methodological approach. A pre- and posttest quantitative analysis was performed on the results obtained after applying the Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire, and a qualitative analysis was performed on the content of follow-up journals. Results: The quantitative results indicated a significant positive posttest, and qualitative analysis explained the civic skills and attitudes that the preservice teachers acquired. Discussion/Conclusion: Service-learning is a useful method for promoting the civic attitudes and skills of preservice teachers. The acquired learning specifically affected the different dimensions involved in achieving meaningful learning, an improvement in the skills and attitudes that are essential characteristics of an inclusive teacher.

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How the Lack of Content Validity in the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy Is Undermining Quality Physical Education

Dean Dudley and John Cairney

Since 2015, the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization has posited physical literacy as a central tenet and pedagogical reform initiative of quality physical education. An assessment of physical literacy is, therefore, becoming an increasingly important aspect of physical education in schools. Internal and external threats to assessment instrument validity are always important considerations in assessment tool development, but this paper identifies why particular attention needs to be paid to the content validity of one such instrument being used by physical educators and researchers. Specifically, this paper interrogates the content validity claims of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy—Version 2 and discusses why greater attention needs to be paid to the content validity of this instrument if pedagogical reform in physical education is not to be undermined.

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Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Physical Education: A Review of Reviews

Damián Iglesias, Javier Fernandez-Rio, and Pablo Rodríguez-González

Purpose: This paper aimed to examine moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in physical education. Method: A review of reviews was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The screening process, data extraction, assessment of the risk of bias, and analysis of the results were carried out independently by two reviewers. A total of eight systematic reviews from six databases, which included 224 studies, involving more than 80,000 students (elementary, middle, and high school), enrolled in more than 450 schools worldwide were unpacked. Results: Students fail to meet the 50% recommendation of MVPA lesson time, irrespective of country, school stage, gender, or MVPA measures. Physical education-based interventions increased students’ MVPA during lessons (range 14.3%–24%) compared with control groups. Conclusion: Physical education is uniquely positioned to provide physical activity opportunities for students, but teachers must target the provision of adequate MVPA levels, which is not currently happening.

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Understanding the Teaching and Learning of Fundamental Movement Skills in the Primary Physical Education Setting: A Qualitative Study

Cecilia H.S. Chan, Amy S.C. Ha, Natalie Lander, and Johan Y.Y. Ng

Purpose: Evidence demonstrates that many school children fail to master fundamental movement skills (FMS). Little is known about the teaching and learning of FMS in Hong Kong. This study aimed to capture voices from both teachers and students to better understand the current FMS practices in primary physical education Methods: Semistructured interviews with physical education teachers and focus groups with students were conducted. Thematic analysis of teacher transcriptions was performed. Student focus groups were analyzed using a framework approach, guided by TARGET (i.e., Task, Autonomy, Recognition, Grouping, Evaluation, and Time). Results: Several “teacher” level themes were developed: Self-efficacy (mis)judgment, limited pedagogical content knowledge, ineffective instructional and assessment strategies, insufficient teacher training, and deprioritization of skill development in physical education. Students perceived the need for a more student-centered approach to the teaching of FMS. Conclusions: Results highlighted the need for a different approach to initial and continuous teacher education in FMS. Further investigation into the most effective forms of teacher education is necessary, in order to improve the teaching and learning of FMS in schools.

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Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of Physical Literacy Assessment: A Mixed-Methods Study

Inimfon A. Essiet, Elyse Warner, Natalie J. Lander, Jo Salmon, Michael J. Duncan, Emma L.J. Eyre, and Lisa M. Barnett

Purpose: Teachers are important stakeholders in supporting children’s physical literacy (PL), yet teachers’ perception of PL assessment is underexplored. Method: Utilizing a mixed-methods design, 122 primary school teachers (of children aged 5–12 years) in Australia completed an online survey, followed by nine interviews. Results: Teachers who favored assessment (58%) tended to report assessing PL in children (χ2[1, N = 110] = 7.025, p = .008). Those who reported assessing PL (also 58%) were more confident to do so (χ2[2, N = 109] = 10.540, p = .005). Teachers considered movement skills, engagement and enjoyment, relationships, and safety and risk as the most important elements for assessing PL. Qualitative data showed nonsupport for PL assessment stemmed from skepticism regarding relevance of assessment, appropriateness of assessment, and views that the curriculum and PL framework were implicitly linked. Conclusion: Professional development, resources, and suitable PL teacher assessments can upskill teachers’ knowledge, confidence, and reduce barriers in implementing PL assessments.

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A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study of the Relationships Between Perceived Coaching Behaviors and Student Athletes’ Competitive Anxiety

Hong-Yu Cheng and Jia-Nan Wang

Purposes: Student athletes from different cultures might differ in the ways that they experience competitive anxiety, and their coaches with dissimilar cultural backgrounds might also present distinct behavioral traits in coaching. The study assessed and compared the competitive anxiety experienced by Chinese student athletes (in a collectivist culture) and American student athletes (in an individualist culture) by using a new competitive anxiety model and examined how their distinct ways of experiencing competitive anxiety might relate to the leading behaviors of Chinese and American coaches. Method: Relevant measures were administered to 258 Chinese student athletes and 214 American student athletes to assess their competitive anxiety and perceived leading behaviors of their coaches. Results: Chinese student athletes scored significantly higher on social expectation anxiety and somatic anxiety in comparison with American student athletes. Chinese student athletes perceived higher levels of training and instruction, and autocratic behaviors of coaches, and American student athletes perceived higher levels of democratic behaviors of coaches. Conclusions: This study revealed the different ways of experiencing certain aspects of competitive anxiety between Chinese and American student athletes, which could be at least partially explained by the distinct leading behaviors of Chinese and American coaches perceived by student athletes in the research.

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A Systematic Review Investigating the Effects of Implementing Game-Based Approaches in School-Based Physical Education Among Primary School Children

Jin Yan, Brad Jones, Jordan J. Smith, Philip Morgan, and Narelle Eather

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of game-based approaches on game performance, fundamental movement skills, health-related indicators, and physical activity outcomes among children (5–12 years) when delivered in the primary physical education school setting. Method: A systematic search of six electronic databases without date limitation was conducted on June 11, 2021. Results: Among included studies (N = 17), positive outcomes were found for children’s game performance, fundamental movement skills, physical and mental health, and/or physical activity. Game-based approaches intervention success appears to be related to the contents of teacher training, especially the inclusion of a theory-based syllabus, mentoring, and reflection sessions. Conclusions: The findings of this review confirm that hybrid sport education-invasion games interventions delivered in primary schools are beneficial for improving a range of student outcomes. To improve physical self-perception, intrinsic motivation, well-being, physiological, and potential psychological outcomes for children, it is necessary to explore more game-based approaches’ longitudinal and intervention research with high quality.

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Tribute to Professor Michael W. Metzler Co-Founder of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

Mark S. Freedman, Jackie Lund, Hans van der Mars, and Phillip Ward

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The Effect of a Coaching Clinic on Student-Coaches’ Behavior During a Basketball Sport Education Season With Preservice Teachers

Peter Iserbyt, Toon Dehandschutter, Hilde Leysen, and Hans van der Mars

Purpose: To investigate (a) if a coaching clinic (CC) impacted student-coaches’ behavior and academic learning time during a basketball Sport Education season and (b) if 3v3 game performance improved as a function of the coaching clinic. Method: Preservice teachers (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a CC or a comparison group and taught a 16-lesson Sport Education-based basketball season. The CC group received a coaching clinic in which student-coaches were introduced to core instructional skills, including task organization, task presentation, and delivering congruent feedback. Results: For both groups, coaching time significantly increased from 11.5% to 34.1%, p = .02, as well as cognitive learner involvement, p < .01. CC coaches provided significantly more demonstrations, p < .02. Players in the CC group had significantly greater improvement in 3v3 game play, p = .01. Conclusion: The clinic positively impacted student-coaches’ demonstrations, which likely contributed to improved 3v3 performance.

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Influence of Secondary Organizational Socialization on How Physical Education Teacher Education Program Coordinators Execute Their Administrative Roles and Responsibilities

Craig Parkes, Jamie Jacob Brunsdon, and Nick O’Leary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of secondary organizational socialization on how physical education teacher education program coordinators execute their administrative roles and responsibilities. Two female program coordinators located within the United States were individually interviewed and provided documentation for analysis. Data analysis was conducted using analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. Both participants acted as customizers, persuaders, and interpreters. The factors influencing the socialization of physical education teacher education coordinators were department faculty, college administration, student enrollment data, and cooperating teacher feedback. Although working at very different institutions, the roles, responsibilities, and socialization influences for both participants were similar. In addition, and despite the prevalence of low enrollments and the educative teacher performance assessment, program coordinators appeared to negate these issues and were effective in executing their administrative roles and responsibilities. These findings would be of interest to those interested in and/or currently maintaining administrative positions in physical education teacher education.