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Open access

Kathleen B. Watson, Geoffrey Whitfield, Tiffany J. Chen, Eric T. Hyde, and John D. Omura

Background: Although disparities in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation by race/ethnicity and income are known, the combined association of these characteristics with LTPA participation is less understood. This study aims to describe trends and determine whether racial/ethnic differences in adult physical activity by income level have changed over the past 2 decades. Methods: The authors estimated LTPA participation (outcomes: any aerobic activity, meeting the aerobic activity guideline, meeting the muscle-strengthening guideline, and meeting the combined aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines) among adults ≥18 years by race/ethnicity across income levels using 1998–2018 National Health Interview Survey data in 3-year aggregates. They also tested for trends, prevalence differences, and difference in differences using logistic regression. Results: LTPA participation increased from 1998–2000 to 2016–2018 for all outcomes for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adults at all income levels. Disparities narrowed for some groups but persisted between white and racial/ethnic minority groups across income levels for engaging in any aerobic activity and meeting the aerobic guideline (0.2–8.8 percentage point difference in differences). Disparities in meeting the muscle-strengthening and combined guidelines were less common. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to ensure that adults, particularly members of lower income racial/ethnic minority groups, have support to help them participate in LTPA.

Open access

John D. Omura, Eric T. Hyde, Giuseppina Imperatore, Fleetwood Loustalot, Louise Murphy, Mary Puckett, Kathleen B. Watson, and Susan A. Carlson

Background: Physical activity is central to the management and control of many chronic health conditions. The authors examined trends during the past 2 decades in the prevalence of US adults with and without select chronic health conditions who met the minimal aerobic physical activity guideline. Methods: The 1998–2018 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed. Prevalence of meeting the minimal aerobic physical activity guideline among adults with and without 6 chronic health conditions was estimated across 3-year intervals. Linear and higher-order trends were assessed overall and by age group. Results: During the past 2 decades, prevalence of meeting the aerobic guideline increased among adults with diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis. However, the absolute increase in prevalence was lower among adults with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and arthritis compared to counterparts without each condition, respectively. Prevalence was persistently lower among those with most chronic health conditions, except cancer, and among older adults compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Although rising trends in physical activity levels among adults with chronic health conditions are encouraging for improving chronic disease management, current prevalence remains low, particularly among older adults. Increasing physical activity should remain a priority for chronic disease management and control.

Open access

Eric T. Hyde, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, John D. Omura, Janet E. Fulton, and Susan A. Carlson

Background: The National Health Interview Survey is unique among US federal surveillance systems with over 20 years of consistent assessment of muscle-strengthening and aerobic activity. The authors examined trends in the prevalence of US adults who met the muscle-strengthening (2 or more days per week) and the combined muscle-strengthening and aerobic physical activity (at least 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity equivalent activity) guidelines from 1998 to 2018. Methods: The 1998–2018 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed. Age-adjusted prevalence of meeting the muscle-strengthening and combined aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines by selected respondent characteristics were estimated for each year and linear and higher-order trends were assessed. Results: From 1998 to 2018, prevalence of meeting the muscle-strengthening guideline increased from 17.7% to 27.6%, and meeting the combined aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines increased from 14.4% to 24.0%. All subgroups demonstrated significant increases in meeting both guideline measures over this period although trends varied across the 21 years; increasing trends were more commonly sustained in the second decade of monitoring. Conclusions: Although increasing trends in prevalence of meeting the muscle-strengthening and combined guidelines are encouraging, current prevalence estimates remain low. Opportunities exist for the continued promotion of muscle-strengthening activity using evidence-based approaches.

Open access

Emily N. Ussery, Geoffrey P. Whitfield, Janet E. Fulton, Deborah A. Galuska, Charles E. Matthews, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Susan A. Carlson

Background: High levels of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity increase the risk of premature mortality and several chronic diseases. Monitoring national trends and correlates of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity can help identify patterns of risk in the population over time. Methods: The authors used self-reported data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007/2008–2017/2018) to estimate trends in US adults’ mean daily sitting time, overall, and stratified by levels of leisure-time and multidomain physical activity, and in the joint prevalence of high sitting time (>8 h/d) and physical inactivity. Trends were tested using orthogonal polynomial contrasts. Results: Overall, mean daily sitting time increased by 19 minutes from 2007/2008 (332 min/d) to 2017/2018 (351 min/d) (P linear < .05; P quadratic < .05). The highest point estimate occurred in 2013/2014 (426 min/d), with a decreasing trend observed after this point (P linear < .05). Similar trends were observed across physical activity levels and domains, with one exception: an overall linear increase was not observed among sufficiently active adults. The mean daily sitting time was lowest among highly active adults compared with less active adults when using the multidomain physical activity measure. Conclusions: Sitting time among adults increased over the study period but decreased in recent years.

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Jackson M. Howard, Bonnie C. Nicholson, Michael B. Madson, Richard S. Mohn, and Emily Bullock-Yowell

Due to demand for high performance inside and outside of the classroom, student-athletes are a unique subsection of college students. Researchers have focused on investigating protective factors, which may enhance student-athlete well-being and academic success in higher education and reduce athlete burnout. The current study examined grit as a mediator between parenting behaviors and academic success, mental health outcomes, and burnout in higher education among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and Division II student-athletes (N = 202). Overparenting behaviors were negatively associated with psychological autonomy granting, mental health outcomes, and athlete burnout. Psychological autonomy granting behaviors were positively associated with grit and negatively associated with mental health outcomes and athlete burnout. Student-athlete grit mediated the relationship between overparenting behaviors and mental health outcomes. Clinical implications include improving student-athlete parent onboarding protocol; student-athlete psychoeducation; and preventative outreach and health promotion among athletes, athletic staff, and university practitioners. In summary, these findings suggest that parenting behaviors and grit are factors that require more attention in fostering student-athlete success.

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Elina Engberg, Marja H. Leppänen, Catharina Sarkkola, and Heli Viljakainen

Background: This study aimed to examine whether sedentary digital media use in preadolescence increases the risk of being overweight 3 years later, and whether this association differs based on preadolescents’ leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. Methods: The authors conducted a 3-year follow-up study among 4661 participants with a mean (SD) age of 11 (1) years at baseline and 14 (1) years at follow-up. A web-based questionnaire assessed sedentary digital media use and LTPA. The authors categorized baseline LTPA duration into 3 levels: 0 to 5 (low), 6 to 8 (moderate), and ≥9 (high) hours per week. In addition, the authors categorized adolescents as normal weight or overweight/obese at follow-up. Results: Greater amounts of sedentary digital media use at baseline associated with an increased risk of being overweight 3 years later even after adjusting for confounders. This only held for preadolescents with low baseline LTPA (OR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.24), but not among those with moderate (OR = 1.02; 0.91–1.15) or high (OR = 0.96; 0.85–1.08) LTPA. Conclusions: Preadolescent LTPA modified the long-term association between sedentary digital media use and being overweight; specifically, 6 hours per week or more of LTPA mitigated the increased risk of being overweight associated with higher amounts of digital media use.

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Charline Madelaine, Nicolas Benguigui, and Michèle Molina

This review addresses the question of a possible specificity of motor development of preterm children with no diagnosis of neurological impairment or major cerebral lesion. With that goal, we proceed with a narrative review on the basis of nine studies. All the studies used standardized assessments of motor abilities with a comparison methodology of preterm and full-term groups aged between 3 and 8 years. The review stresses three major findings in the preterm groups as compared with the full-term groups: (a) inferior fine motor abilities; (b) heterogeneity in motor skills; and (c) differences in efficiency of cognitive, perceptual, and mobilization of perceptual motor processes, which do not necessarily result in lower scores in global performances. These findings suggest the need of long-term medical follow-up for all preterm children whether or not they are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorder. Focusing attention on the use of sensory information for motor control in preterm children could also lead to more precise evaluations of motor abilities, which will then provide more detailed parameters for improved learning and rehabilitation programs.

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Becky Breau, Berit Brandes, Marvin N. Wright, Christoph Buck, Lori Ann Vallis, and Mirko Brandes

This study explored the relationship between motor abilities and accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity (PA) within preschool-aged children. A total of 193 children (101 girls, 4.2 ± 0.7 years) completed five tests to assess motor abilities, shuttle run (SR), standing long jump, lateral jumping, one-leg stand, and sit and reach. Four PA variables derived from 7-day wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometers were analyzed including moderate to vigorous PA (in minutes), total PA (in minutes), percentage of total PA time in moderate to vigorous PA, and whether or not children met World Health Organization guidelines for PA. Linear regressions were conducted to explore associations between each PA variable (predictor) and motor ability (outcome). Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, parental education, time spent at sports clubs, and wear time. Models with percentage of total PA time in moderate to vigorous PA were adjusted for percentage of total PA time. Regression analyses indicated that no PA variables were associated with any of the motor abilities, but demographic factors such as age (e.g., SR: ß = −0.45; 95% confidence interval [−1.64, −0.66]), parental education (e.g., SR: ß = 0.25; 95% confidence interval [0.11, 1.87]), or sports club time (e.g., SR: ß = −0.08; 95% confidence interval [−0.98, 0.26]) showed substantial associations with motor abilities. Model strength varied depending on the PA variable and motor ability entered. Results demonstrate that total PA and meeting current PA guidelines may be of importance for motor ability development and should be investigated further. Other covariates showed stronger associations with motor abilities such as time spent at sports clubs and should be investigated in longitudinal settings to assess the associations with individual motor abilities.

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Chih-Chia Chen, Yonjoong Ryuh, Tony Luczak, and John Lamberth

The purpose of this study was to examine the distance of varying focus of attention for experienced and novice golfers on a golf putting task. Forty-eight experienced and 48 novice golfers were randomized into four attentional focus conditions: control (no instruction), internal (i.e., focus on the arm movement), external proximal (i.e., focus on the golf club), and external distal (i.e., focus on the target) conditions. Performance outcomes (the perceived level of confidence and number of golf putts made) were recorded. Experienced golfers had better performance outcomes than novice golfers. The external proximal focus was specifically beneficial for novice golfers, while experienced golfers had an advantage in both external focus instructions. The external proximal focus might enable a perception-action process for novice golfers to compare the relationship between action planning and the surrounding environment. In addition, the transition to expertise might result in no difference between both external focus instructions for experienced golfers.

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Lauren Q. Higgins, Jeffrey D. Labban, Ruth D. Stout, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, Christopher K. Rhea, and Louisa D. Raisbeck

Adults (N = 54, 80.78 ± 6.08 years) who reported falling during the previous 12 months participated in a 12-week wobble board training program with internal focus or external focus (EF) instructions. Verbal manipulation checks were performed after training sessions as a self-report of the attentional foci used. The percentage of sessions in which participants reported using an EF (EFSR) was subsequently calculated. Mean velocity and mean power frequency in the anterior–posterior (MVELOAP and MPFAP) and medial–lateral (MVELOML and MPFML) direction were assessed during a 35-s wobble board task at Weeks 0, 6, 12, 13, 16, and 20, with the latter three as retention tests. Piecewise linear growth models estimated treatment effects on individual growth trajectories of MVELOAP and ML and MPFAP and ML during intervention and retention periods. Regardless of condition, MVELOML significantly decreased (π = −.0019, p = .005) and MPFML increased (π = .025, p < .02) during the intervention period. In analyses including interaction terms, participants in the EF group who reported greater EFSR had superior progression of MPFAP during the intervention (π = .0013, p = .025). Verbal manipulation checks suggest a preference for and advantage of EF for facilitating postural control performance and automaticity.