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Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

The purpose of this study was to produce a descriptive overview of the types of water-based interventions for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability and to determine how outcomes have been evaluated. Literature was searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid Emcare, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and Google. One hundred fifty-three papers met the inclusion criteria, 115 hydrotherapy, 62 swimming, 18 SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), and 18 other water-based interventions. Common conditions included cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and intellectual disability. Fifty-four papers explored physical outcomes, 36 psychosocial outcomes, and 24 both physical and psychosocial outcomes, with 180 different outcome measures reported. Overall, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for all intervention types. This review provides a broad picture of water-based interventions and associated research. Future research, guided by this scoping review, will allow a greater understanding of the potential benefits for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability.

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Christopher R.J. Fennell and James G. Hopker

Purpose: There has been paucity in research investigating the individualization of recovery interval duration during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT). The main aim of the study was to investigate whether individualizing the duration of the recovery interval based upon the resolution of muscle oxygen consumption would improve the performance during work intervals and the acute physiological response of the HIIT session, when compared with a standardized (2:1 work recovery ratio) approach. Methods: A total of 16 well-trained cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption: 60 [7] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed 6 laboratory visits: (Visit 1) incremental exercise test, (Visit 2) determination of the individualized (IND) recovery duration, using the individuals’ muscle oxygen consumption recovery duration to baseline from a 4- and 8-minute work interval, (Visits 3–6) participants completed a 6 × 4- and a 3 × 8-minute HIIT session twice, using the IND and standardized recovery intervals. Results: Recovery duration had no effect on the percentage of the work intervals spent at >90% and >95% of maximal oxygen consumption, maximal minute power output, and maximal heart rate, during the 6 × 4- and 3 × 8-minute HIIT sessions. Recovery duration had no effect on mean work interval power output, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion. There were no differences in reported session RPE between recovery durations for the 6 × 4- and 3 × 8-minute HIIT sessions. Conclusion: Individualizing HIIT recovery duration based upon the resolution of muscle oxygen consumption to baseline levels does not improve the performance of the work intervals or the acute physiological response of the HIIT session, when compared with standardized recovery duration.

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Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Harald Tschan, and Alfred Nimmerichter

Purpose: To determine aerobic and anaerobic demands of mountain bike cross-country racing. Methods: Twelve elite cyclists (7 males; V˙O2max = 73.8 [2.6] mL·min-1·kg−1, maximal aerobic power [MAP] = 370 [26] W, 5.7 [0.4] W·kg−1, and 5 females; V˙O2max = 67.3 [2.9] mL·min−1·kg−1, MAP = 261 [17] W, 5.0 [0.1] W·kg−1) participated over 4 seasons at several (119) international and national races and performed laboratory tests regularly to assess their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Power output, heart rate, and cadence were recorded throughout the races. Results: The mean race time was 79 (12) minutes performed at a mean power output of 3.8 (0.4) W·kg−1; 70% (7%) MAP (3.9 [0.4] W·kg−1 and 3.6 [0.4] W·kg−1 for males and females, respectively) with a cadence of 64 (5) rev·min−1 (including nonpedaling periods). Time spent in intensity zones 1 to 4 (below MAP) were 28% (4%), 18% (8%), 12% (2%), and 13% (3%), respectively; 30% (9%) was spent in zone 5 (above MAP). The number of efforts above MAP was 334 (84), which had a mean duration of 4.3 (1.1) seconds, separated by 10.9 (3) seconds with a mean power output of 7.3 (0.6) W·kg−1 (135% [9%] MAP). Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of the anaerobic energy system and the interaction between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Therefore, the ability to perform numerous efforts above MAP and a high aerobic capacity are essential to be competitive in mountain bike cross-country.

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Sebastian Kaufmann, Ralph Beneke, Richard Latzel, Hanna Pfister, and Olaf Hoos

Purpose: To elucidate the role of inter-effort recovery in shuttle running by comparing the metabolic profiles of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) and the corresponding continuous version (30-15IFT-CONT). Methods: Sixteen state-level handball players (age = 23 [3] y, height = 185 [7] cm, weight = 85 [14] kg) completed the 30-15IFT and 30-15IFT-CONT, and speed at the last completed stage (in kilometers per hour) and time to exhaustion (in seconds) were assessed. Furthermore, oxygen uptake (in milliliters per kilogram per minute) and blood lactate were obtained preexercise, during exercise, and until 15 minutes postexercise. Metabolic energy (in kilojoules), metabolic power (in Watts per kilogram), and relative (in percentage) energy contribution of the aerobic (WAER, WAERint), anaerobic lactic (WBLC, WBLCint), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr, WPCrint) systems were calculated by PCr-La-O2 method for 30-15IFT-CONT and 30-15IFT. Results: No difference in peak oxygen uptake was found between 30-15IFT and 30-15IFT-CONT (60.6 [6.6] vs 60.5 [5.1] mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .165, d = 0.20), whereas speed at the last completed stage was higher in 30-15IFT (18.3 [1.4] vs 16.1 [1.0] km·h−1, P < .001, d = 1.17). Metabolic energy was also higher in 30-15IFT (1224.2 [269.6] vs 772.8 [63.1] kJ, P < .001, d = 5.60), and metabolic profiles differed substantially for aerobic (30-15IFT = 67.2 [5.2] vs 30-15IFT-CONT = 85.2% [2.5%], P < .001, d = −4.01), anaerobic lactic (30-15IFT = 4.4 [1.4] vs 30-15IFT-CONT = 6.2% [1.8%], P < .001, d = −1.04), and anaerobic alactic (30-15IFT = 28.4 [4.7] vs 30-15IFT-CONT = 8.6% [2.1%], P < .001, d = 5.43) components. Conclusions: Both 30-15IFT and 30-15IFT-CONT are mainly fueled by aerobic energy, but their metabolic profiles differ substantially in both aerobic and anaerobic alactic energy contribution. Due to the presence of inter-effort recovery, intermittent shuttle runs rely to a higher extent on anaerobic alactic energy and a fast, aerobic replenishment of PCr during the short breaks between shuttles.

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Subir Gupta, Arkadiusz Stanula, and Asis Goswami

Purpose: To determine (1) the time of arrival of peak blood lactate concentration ([BLa]peak) followed by various track events and (2) significant correlation, if any, between average velocity and [BLa]peak in these events. Methods: In 58 under-20 male track athletes, heart rate was recorded continuously and blood lactate concentration was determined at various intervals following 100-m (n = 9), 200-m (n = 8), 400-m (flat) (n = 9), 400-m hurdles (n = 8), 800-m (n = 9), 1500-m (n = 8), 3000-m steeplechase (n = 7), and 5000-m (n = 10) runs. Results: The [BLa]peak, in mmol/L, was recorded highest following the 400-m run (18.27 [3.65]) followed by 400-m hurdles (16.25 [3.14]), 800-m (15.53 [3.25]), 1500-m (14.71 [3.00]), 200-m (14.42 [3.40]), 3000-m steeplechase (11.87 [1.48]), 100-m (11.05 [2.36]), and 5000-m runs (8.65 [1.60]). The average velocity of only the 400-m run was found to be significantly correlated (r = .877, p < 0.05) with [BLa]peak. The arrival time of [BLa]peak following 100-m, 200-m, 400-m, 400-m hurdles, 800-m, 1500-m, 3000-m steeplechase, and 5000-m runs was 4.44 (0.83), 4.13 (0.93), 4.22 (0.63), 3.75 (0.83), 3.34 (1.20), 2.06 (1.21), 1.71 (1.44), and 1.06 (1.04) minutes, respectively, of the recovery period. Conclusion: In under-20 runners, (1) [BLa]peak is highest after the 400-m run, (2) the time of appearance of [BLa]peak varies from one event to another but arrives later after sprint events than longer distances, and (3) the 400-m (flat) run is the only event wherein the performance is significantly correlated with the [BLa]peak.

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Whitney N. Neal, Emma Richardson, and Robert W. Motl

The uptake and benefits of the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis (PAGs) have been validated, but there is limited understanding regarding the knowledge, needs, and preferences of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) for implementing the PAGs outside of clinical research. The authors conducted online, semistructured interviews with 40 persons with MS from across the United States seeking information on awareness of and potential approaches for increasing the uptake of the PAGs. They identified first impressions and potential approaches for increasing the uptake of the PAGs through inductive, semantic thematic analysis. Participants perceived the PAGs as a good introduction for structured exercise but desired more information on how to meet the PAGs. Participants further believed that modifying the PAGs for inclusivity and applying a multifaceted approach for dissemination and implementation may increase uptake of exercise behavior. Physical activity research in MS should include both analyzing the effects of exercise and the unique challenges faced by persons with MS in putting the PAGs into practice.

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Benita J. Lalor, Jacqueline Tran, Shona L. Halson, Justin G. Kemp, and Stuart J. Cormack

Purpose: To determine the impact of the quality and quantity of sleep during an international flight on subsequent objective sleep characteristics, training and match-day load, self-reported well-being, and perceptions of jet lag of elite female cricketers during an International Cricket Council Women’s T20 World Cup. Methods: In-flight and tournament objective sleep characteristics of 11 elite female cricketers were assessed using activity monitors. Seated in business class, players traveled west from Melbourne, Australia, to Chennai, India. The outbound flight departed Melbourne at 3:30 AM with a stopover in Dubai for 2 hours. The arrival time in Chennai was 8:10 PM local time (1:40 AM in Melbourne). The total travel time was 19 hours 35 minutes. Perceptual ratings of jet lag, well-being, and training and competition load were collected. To determine the impact of in-flight sleep on tournament measures, a median split was used to create subsamples based on (1) in-flight sleep quantity and (2) in-flight sleep quality (2 groups: higher vs lower). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the bivariate associations between sleep measures, self-reported well-being, perceptual measures of jet lag, and internal training and match-day load. Results: Mean duration and efficiency of in-flight sleep bouts were 4.72 hours and 87.45%, respectively. Aggregated in-flight sleep duration was 14.64 + 3.56 hours. Players with higher in-flight sleep efficiency reported higher ratings for fatigue (ie, lower perceived fatigue) during the tournament period. Tournament sleep duration was longer, and bed and wake times were earlier compared with habitual. Compared with other nights during the tournament, sleep duration was shorter following matches. Conclusions: Maximizing in-flight sleep quality and quantity appears to have implications for recovery and sleep exhibited during competition. Sleep duration was longer than habitual except for the night of a match, which suggests that T20 matches may disrupt sleep duration.

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Camilla H. Carlsen, David McGhie, Julia K. Baumgart, and Øyvind Sandbakk

Purpose: To compare peak work rate (WRpeak) and associated physiological and biomechanical performance-determining variables between flat and uphill cross-country (XC) sit-skiing. Methods: Fifteen able-bodied male XC skiers completed 2 test sessions, each comprising four 4-minute submaximal stages, followed by an incremental test to exhaustion and a verification test in a sit-ski on a roller-ski treadmill. The test sessions were counterbalanced by the incline, being either 0.5% (FLAT) or 5% (UPHILL). The authors compared WRpeak and peak oxygen uptake, as well as physiological variables, rating of perceived exertion, gross efficiency, and cycle characteristics at identical submaximal work rate, between FLAT and UPHILL. Results: In UPHILL, WRpeak was 35% higher compared to FLAT (P < .001), despite no difference in peak oxygen uptake (P = .9). The higher WRpeak in UPHILL was achieved through more work per cycle, which was enabled by the twice as long poling time, compared to FLAT (P < .001). Submaximal gross efficiency was 0.5 to 2 percentage points lower in FLAT compared to UPHILL (P < .001), with an increasing difference as work rate increased (P < .001). Neither cycle rate nor work per cycle differed between inclines when compared at identical submaximal work rate (P > .16). Conclusions: The longer poling times utilized in uphill XC sit-skiing enable more work per cycle and better gross efficiency, thereby allowing skiers to achieve a higher WRpeak compared to flat XC sit-skiing. However, the similar values of peak oxygen uptake between inclines indicate that XC sit-skiers can tax their cardiorespiratory capacity similarly in both conditions.

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William H. Gurton, Steve H. Faulkner, and Ruth M. James

Purpose: To examine whether an ecologically valid, intermittent, sprint-based warm-up strategy impacted the ergogenic capacity of individualized sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on 4-km cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: A total of 8 male cyclists attended 6 laboratory visits for familiarization, determination of time to peak blood bicarbonate, and 4 × 4-km cycling TTs. Experimental beverages were administered doubleblind. Treatments were conducted in a block-randomized, crossover order: intermittent warm-up + NaHCO3 (IWSB), intermittent warm-up + placebo, control warm-up + NaHCO3 (CWSB), and control warm-up + placebo (CWP). The intermittent warm-up comprised exercise corresponding to lactate threshold (5 min at 50%, 2 min at 60%, 2 min at 80%, 1 min at 100%, and 2 min at 50%) and 3 × 10-second maximal sprints. The control warm-up comprised 16.5 minutes cycling at 150 W. Participants ingested 0.3 g·kg body mass−1 NaHCO3 or 0.03 g·kg body mass−1 sodium chloride (placebo) in 5 mL·kg body mass−1 fluid (3:2, water and sugar-free orange squash). Paired t tests were conducted for TT performance. Hematological data (blood bicarbonate and blood lactate) and gastrointestinal discomfort were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Performance was faster for CWSB versus IWSB (5.0 [6.1] s; P = .052) and CWP (5.8 [6.0] s; P = .03). Pre-TT bicarbonate concentration was elevated for CWSB versus IWSB (+9.3 mmol·L−1; P < .001) and CWP (+7.1 mmol·L−1; P < .001). Post-TT blood lactate concentration was elevated for CWSB versus CWP (+2.52 mmol·L−1; P = .022). Belching was exacerbated pre-warm-up for IWSB versus intermittent warm-up +placebo (P = .046) and CWP (P = .027). Conclusion: An intermittent, sprint-based warm-up mitigated the ergogenic benefits of NaHCO3 ingestion on 4-km cycling TT performance.

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Thomas Losnegard, Sondre Skarli, Joar Hansen, Stian Roterud, Ida S. Svendsen, Bent R. Rønnestad, and Gøran Paulsen

Purpose: Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a widely used tool to assess subjective perception of effort during exercise. The authors investigated between-subject variation and effect of exercise mode and sex on Borg RPE (6–20) in relation to heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and capillary blood lactate concentrations. Methods: A total of 160 elite endurance athletes performed a submaximal and maximal test protocol either during cycling (n = 84, 37 women) or running (n = 76, 32 women). The submaximal test consisted of 4 to 7 progressive 5-minute steps within ∼50% to 85% of maximal VO2. For each step, steady-state HR, VO2, and capillary blood lactate concentrations were assessed and RPE reported. An incremental protocol to exhaustion was used to determine maximal VO2 and peak HR to provide relative (%) HR and VO2 values at submaximal work rates. Results: A strong relationship was found between RPE and %HR, %VO2, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (r = .80–.82, all Ps < .05). The between-subject coefficient of variation (SD/mean) for %HR and %VO2 decreased linearly with increased RPE, from ∼10% to 15% at RPE 8 to ∼5% at RPE 17. Compared with cycling, running induced a systematically higher %HR and %VO2 (∼2% and 5%, respectively, P < .05) with these differences being greater at lower intensities (RPE < 13). At the same RPE, women showed a trivial, but significantly higher %HR and %VO2 than men (<1%, P < .05). Conclusions: Among elite endurance athletes, exercise mode influenced RPE at a given %HR and %VO2, with greater differences at lower exercise intensities. Athletes should manage different tools to evaluate training based on intensity and duration of workouts.