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Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines Among Low-Income Brazilian Older Adults With Chronic Diseases

Antonio Henrique Germano Soares, Andrea Wendt, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Clarice Martins, Arthur Oliveira Barbosa, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, and Rafael M. Tassitano

This study examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of meeting individual behavior and 24-hr movement behavior guidelines among Brazilian older adults with chronic diseases. The sample comprised 273 older adults aged ≥60 years (80.2% women) with chronic diseases from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sociodemographic variables were self-reported, while 24-hr movement behaviors were assessed by accelerometry. Participants were classified as meeting (or not meeting) individual and integrated recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior, and sleep duration. No participant met the 24-hr movement behavior guidelines, while only 8.4% met integrated MVPA/sleep recommendations. The prevalence of meeting recommendations of MVPA, sedentary behavior, and sleep was 28.9%, 0.4%, and 32.6%, respectively. Discrepancies according to sociodemographic variables on meeting MVPA recommendations existed. The findings show the need for dissemination and implementation strategies to foster adoption of the 24-hr movement behavior guidelines among Brazilian older adults with chronic diseases.

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Social Support for Physical Activity Over 9 Years in Adults Aged 60–65 Years at Baseline

Genevieve S.E. Smith, Robert S. Ware, Wendy Moyle, and Nicola W. Burton

Physical activity is a leading determinant of health and well-being in older adults; however, participation is low. Social support can significantly influence physical activity uptake and maintenance; however, most research is cross-sectional and does not differentiate among types of support. The current study assessed four types of social support for physical activity reported over 9 years by adults aged 60–65 at baseline (n = 1,984). Data were collected using a mail survey at four time points. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The most common type of support was emotional, with 25% of participants reporting this often/very often. Total support for activity declined by 16% across the 9 years (p < .001). Companionship had the greatest decline among types (17%–18%, p < .001). More work is needed to understand the factors contributing to the decline in support and how to enable access to support for physical activity in older adults.

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Variable Cadence Gait Training Outcomes Using Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Embedded in Older Adults’ Preferred Music

Cathy A. Larson, Edward A. Roth, Alycia J. Sterenberg Mahon, Michael Crinion, Kelsey Fischer, Sun Hye Yim, and Amy K. Smith

Older adults must have the ability to walk at variable speeds/distances to meet community demands. This single group pre–post test study’s purposes were to examine if actual cadences after 7 weeks of rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training matched target cadences, improved walking distance, duration, velocity, maximum cadence, balance, enjoyment, and/or changed spatial/temporal gait parameters. Fourteen female adults (72.6 ± 4.4 years) participated in 14 sessions, while variable cadences were progressively introduced. Eleven older adult responders walked faster (3.8 steps/min) than one target cadence (−10% pace) while matching the target cadences for the other paces when walking with rhythmic auditory stimulation. Two nonresponders walked near their baseline cadence with little variability while one walked at faster cadences; all three did not appear to adjust to the beat of the music. After training, participants increased their walking distance, 90.8 ± 46.5 m; t(1, 13) = −7.3; p ≤ .005, velocity, 0.36 ± 0.15 m/s; t(1, 40) = −15.4; p < .001, and maximum cadence, 20.6 ± 9.1 steps/min; t(1, 40) = −14.6; p < .001; changes exceeded minimal clinically important differences. Twelve of 14 expressed enjoyment. Walk with rhythmic auditory stimulation training is a promising activity for older adults, which may translate to an individual’s ability to adapt walking speeds to various community demands.

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Introduction From the New Editors

Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn

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Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Hospitalized Patients With Dementia

Brittany F. Drazich, Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Nayeon Kim, Rachel McPherson, Jeanette Ellis, Jasmine Phun, and Ashley Kuzmik

Older adults continue to spend little time engaged in physical activity when hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe activity among hospitalized older adults with dementia and (b) identify the association between specific factors (gender, ambulation independence, comorbidities, race, and hospital setting) and their physical activity. This descriptive study utilized baseline data on the first 79 participants from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care using the Evidence Integration Triangle. Multiple linear regression models were run using accelerometry data from the first full day of hospitalization. The participants spent an average of 83.7% of their time being sedentary. Male gender, ambulation independence, and hospital setting (the hospital in which the patient was admitted) were associated with greater activity. This study reports on the limited time spent in activity for older adults with dementia when hospitalized and highlights patient profiles that are particularly vulnerable to sedentary behavior in the hospital setting.

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Physical Activity as Measured by Accelerometers Predicts Functional Improvement in Older Patients Undergoing Hospital Rehabilitation

Takuro Ohtsubo, Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, and Katsuhiro Ueno

This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) as measured using accelerometers, and functional improvement measured using a short physical performance battery in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. After admission to the rehabilitation hospital, patients were categorized into quartile groups based on their level of PA measured using accelerometers. The primary outcome was physical function measured using the short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. A total of 204 patients were included in the analysis. After adjusting for confounding factors, light-intensity PA (p < .001) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (p < .001) were associated with a short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. In conclusion, PA at admission is positively associated with functional improvement in older patients undergoing hospital rehabilitation.

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Volume 31 (2023): Issue 1 (Feb 2023)

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SMARTfit Dual-Task Exercise Improves Cognition and Physical Function in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results of a Community-Based Pilot Study

Sameer Jhaveri, Matthew Romanyk, Ryan Glatt, and Nikhil Satchidanand

Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediate state between the cognitive decline often experienced in normal aging and dementia that affects 15% of Americans over 65 years of age. Our communities have an opportunity to support the development and adoption of evidence-based programs to help older adults preserve cognition and physical function. In partnership with a local urban YMCA in an underserved, predominantly minority neighborhood, we tested the appeal and therapeutic benefits of SMARTfit training among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. The participants reported a positive training experience. After 12 weeks of dual-task training, Trail-Making Test and Stroop Color–Word Interference Test scores improved, as did scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results of our SMARTfit dual-task training intervention are encouraging. Larger randomized controlled trials must further investigate the development, implementation, and therapeutic impacts of SMARTfit dual-task training on cognitive and physical function in aging.

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Change in Views of Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Health Over 8 Weeks: Results From a Randomized Study

Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.

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Resistance Band Exercise: An Effective Strategy to Reverse Cardiometabolic Disorders in Women With Osteosarcopenic Obesity

Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elahe Banitalebi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Rahimi, Ismail Laher, and Kade Davison

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65–80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.