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Andrew P. Friesen

There has been an implied direct connection between the scholarly literature and applied practice. However, the sport and exercise psychology community is lacking an empirical account of what practitioners believe to have been the most impactful scholarly writings to their applied practice. The purpose of this study was to survey applied practitioners of their perceived most impactful scholarly writings to their professional practice. Surveys were returned from 532 participants solicited from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology membership, who were asked to identify their perceived most impactful book and journal article to their practice. Frequency statistics were calculated and presented for topic, type, title, author(s), year published, and journal. A total of 143 different books and 188 different articles across 84 different journals were reported. Implications for applied practice, teaching sport and exercise psychology, and research are presented.

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Niki Tsangaridou, Mikaela Pieroua, Ermis Kyriakides, and Charalambos Y. Charalambous

Purpose: To examine early childhood teachers’ practices of teaching physical education. Method: Eleven early childhood educators participated in the study. Data were collected using two systematic observation instruments, a modified version of the Task Structure System and the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness. Three 40-min lessons were observed for each teacher. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The findings showed that most childhood educators more often employed certain generic, rather than content-specific, practices in their physical education lessons. Application, structuring, and questioning were observed in most lessons, while skill demonstration, emphasis on critical elements, and congruent and specific feedback were not frequently observed. Additionally, the generic practices of orientation and modeling were observed in only a few lessons. Conclusions: By investigating and understanding the practices that early childhood teachers employ during physical education lessons, teacher educators can support teachers in ways that provide more meaningful experiences for children.

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Thomas W. Jones, Andrew D. Govus, Alfred Buskqvist, Erik P. Andersson, and Kerry McGawley

Purpose: To provide a descriptive analysis of the warm-up (WU) strategies employed by cross-country skiers prior to distance and sprint competitions at a national championship and to compare the skiers’ planned and executed WUs prior to the respective competitions. Methods: Twenty-one national- and international-level skiers (11 women and 10 men) submitted WU plans prior to the distance and sprint competitions, and after the competitions, reported any deviations from the plans. Skiers used personal monitors to record heart rate (HR) during WU, races, and cooldown. Quantitative statistical analyses were conducted on WU durations, durations in HR-derived intensity zones, and WU loads. Qualitative analyses were conducted on skiers’ WU plans and their reasons for deviating from the plans. Results: Skiers’ planned WUs were similar in content and planned time in HR-derived intensity zones for both the distance and sprint competitions. However, 45% of the women and 20% of the men reported that their WU was not carried out as planned, with reasons detailed as being due to incorrect intensities and running out of time. WU activities including skiing across variable terrain, muscle-potentiating exercises, and heat-maintenance strategies were missing from the skiers’ planned routines. Conclusions: Skiers favored a long, traditional WU approach for both the sprint and distance events, performing less high-intensity and more moderate-intensity exercise during their WUs than planned. In addition, elements likely relevant to successful performance in cross-country skiing were missing from WU plans.

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Carolina Casado-Robles, Jesús Viciana, Santiago Guijarro-Romero, and Daniel Mayorga-Vega

Purpose: To examine the effect of two physical education–based alternated teaching units on students’ environmental knowledge for practicing out-of-school physical activity (PA), perceived autonomy support, self-determined and controlled motivation toward PA, intention to be physically active, self-reported and objective PA levels, and sedentary behavior. Method: A sample of 179 students (94 females) aged 13–15 years old was cluster randomly assigned to the innovative group (two alternated teaching units for practicing PA, with one lesson inside and one outside the school grounds) or the traditional group (a teaching unit for practicing PA, solely inside the school center). Results: The alternated teaching units improved students’ knowledge of their environment for practicing PA, perceived autonomy, autonomous motivation, intention to be physically active, and self-reported PA during the whole week (p < .05). Discussion/Conclusion: The innovative program improved students’ knowledge about their environment for practicing PA and self-reported PA but did not improve objectively measured PA levels.

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Jerome Koral, Marie Fanget, Laurianne Imbert, Thibault Besson, Djahid Kennouche, Audrey Parent, Clément Foschia, Jérémy Rossi, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Purpose: Fatigue has previously been investigated in trail running by comparing maximal isometric force before and after the race. Isometric contractions may not entirely reflect fatigue-induced changes, and therefore dynamic evaluation is warranted. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the decrement of maximal isometric force versus maximal power, force, and velocity after trail running races ranging from 40 to 170 km. Methods: Nineteen trail runners completed races shorter than 60 km, and 21 runners completed races longer than 100 km. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVCs) of knee extensors and plantar flexors and maximal 7-second sprints on a cycle ergometer were performed before and after the event. Results: Maximal power output (P max; −14% [11%], P < .001), theoretical maximum force (F 0; −11% [14%], P < .001), and theoretical maximum velocity (−3% [8%], P = .037) decreased significantly after both races. All dynamic parameters but theoretical maximum velocity decreased more after races longer than 100 km than races shorter than 60 km (P < .05). Although the changes in IMVCs were significantly correlated (P < .05) with the changes in F 0 and P max, reductions in IMVCs for knee extensors (−29% [16%], P < .001) and plantar flexors (−26% [13%], P < .001) were larger (P < .001) than the reduction in P max and F 0. Conclusions: After a trail running race, reductions in isometric versus dynamic forces were correlated, yet they are not interchangeable because the losses in isometric force were 2 to 3 times greater than the reductions in P max and F 0. This study also shows that the effect of race distance on fatigue measured in isometric mode is true when measured in dynamic mode.

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Daniela M. Susnara, Matthew Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

Purpose: To examine the impact of an out-of-school swimming program on children and youth from one underserved community. Method: Participants were 200 children and youth who attended the out-of-school swimming program during two consecutive summers. The theoretical framework employed drew from previous research on socialization. A mixed-methods design involved participants’ aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety being assessed at the beginning and end of each summer. These data were examined through descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative methods employed were nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, and focus groups. Standard interpretive methods were employed to analyze the data these techniques yielded. Findings: Participants improved their aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety. They moved from being concerned for their safety to being confident in their aquatic ability and knowledge. The key socialization agents responsible for this shift were the instructors. Conclusion: The study suggests that an out-of-school swimming program taught by well-trained instructors can be effective.

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Johannes Raabe, Elmer Castillo, and Johannes Carl

Although applied sport psychology services have traditionally been provided in athletic settings, there has been a trend toward a more general application across different performance domains and, in particular, with tactical populations (i.e., military, law enforcement, and firefighters). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the existing research on mental qualities and techniques in tactical populations. A database search revealed 7,220 potentially relevant articles, which were screened by two independent reviewers based on predefined inclusion criteria. This systematic screening process helped to identify 49 articles for further analysis. The findings highlight the benefits of developing mental qualities and techniques among tactical populations, as they can help to nurture a range of positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Yet, this review also indicates gaps and limitations that need to be addressed in future research to gain a better understanding of the antecedents, mediators, and consequences of these psychological constructs.

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Michael A. Hemphill, Risto Marttinen, and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: The purpose of this cyclical action research study was to examine the perspectives of Clyde, a first-year physical education teacher working in an urban intensive environment, as he attempted to implement restorative practices. Methods: Data included semistructured interviews, weekly e-mail communication, text messages, photographs, field notes from observations, and artifacts. Data were analyzed using a combination of inductive and deductive analysis. Results: The results are presented in three themes: (a) searching for appropriate discipline procedures, (b) critical incidents inhibited the integration of restorative practices, and (c) lack of preparation to teach in an urban intensive environment. Conclusion: Clyde’s experience suggests that challenges for early career teachers may be further complicated by teaching in urban intensive environments. Teacher educators may consider the different contexts in which teachers work and the influence they can have on both teacher effectiveness and job satisfaction.

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Rodrigo Zacca, Bruno Mezêncio, Flávio A. de Souza Castro, Fábio Y. Nakamura, David B. Pyne, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Aim: The authors investigated how the Arena Powerskin R-EVO Closed Back swimsuit and Arena Carbon Triwetsuit (full-sleeve wetsuit), both approved by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) regulations, affect biomechanics and energetics of 3 elite female open water (OW) swimmers at maximal and 4 submaximal swimming intensities. Methods: Three elite female OW swimmers (OW1 = 24 y, 1.64 m, 60 kg; OW2 = 23 y, 1.69 m, 65 kg; OW3 = 27 y, 1.63 m, 64.5 kg) were tested 1 week prior to a FINA/CNSG (China National Sports Group) Marathon Swim World Series event and 40 days before the 18th FINA World Championships 2019. Each OW swimmer completed 2 identical testing sessions, one with a swimsuit and other with a wetsuit, involving shoulder flexion power output assessed from medicine-ball throw, maximal performance and drag coefficient assessment, and an incremental intermittent swim test at 4 different relative intensities. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake was 4.4 L·min−1 for OW1, 5.6 L·min−1 for OW2, and 5.0 L·min−1 for OW3. Despite a distinct behavior observed on index of coordination for OW3, a null index of synchronization, increased stroke rate (mean difference = 2%–8%), reduced drag factor (minimum = −14%; maximum = −30%), lower energy cost (mean difference = −2% to −6%), and faster performance (mean difference = 2% to 3%) were observed with the wetsuit compared with swimsuit for all elite OW swimmers. Conclusion: The wetsuit enhances submaximal swimming performance, and this increase is dependent on the OW swimmer’s characteristics. The higher stroke rate and lower stroke length detected with wetsuit could be related to movement constraints imposed by the suit.