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Philip Furley and Alexander Roth

Nonverbal behavior (NVB) plays an important role in sports. However, it has been difficult to measure, as no coding schemes exist to objectively measure NVB in sports. Therefore, the authors adapted the Body Action and Posture Coding System to the context of soccer penalties, validated it, and initially used this system (Nonverbal Behavior Coding System for Soccer Penalties [NBCSP]) to explore NVB in penalties. Study 1 demonstrated that the NBCSP had good to excellent intercoder reliability regarding the occurrence and temporal precision of NVBs. It also showed that the coding system could differentiate certain postures and behaviors as a function of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs. negative emotional states). Study 2 identified differences in NVB for successful and missed shots in a sample of penalties (time spent looking toward the goal, toward the ground, right arm movement, and how upright the body posture was). The authors discuss the utility of the coding system for different sport contexts.

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Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North

Extensive literature has shown the effect of “quiet eye” (QE) on motor performance. However, little attention has been paid to the context in which tasks are executed (independent of anxiety) and the mechanisms that underpin the phenomenon. Here, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of context (independent of anxiety) on QE and performance while examining if the mechanisms underpinning QE are rooted in cognitive effort. In this study, 21 novice participants completed golf putts while pupil dilation, QE duration, and putting accuracy were measured. Results showed that putting to win was more accurate compared with the control (no context) condition, and QE duration was longer when putting to win or tie a hole compared with control. There was no effect of context on pupil dilation. Results suggest that, while the task was challenging, performance scenarios can enhance representativeness of practice without adding additional load to cognitive resources, even for novice performers.

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Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Steve Mann, Alfonso Jimenez, and Elizabeth Horton

Background: Exercise referral schemes in England offer referred participants an opportunity to take part in an exercise prescription in a nonclinical environment. The aim of these schemes is to effect clinical health benefits, yet there is limited evidence of schemes’ effectiveness, which could be due to the heterogeneity in design, implementation, and evaluation. Additionally, there has been no concerted effort to map program characteristics. Objective: To understand what key delivery approaches are currently used within exercise referral schemes in England. Methods: Across England, a total of 30 schemes with a combined total of 85,259 exercise referral scheme participants completed a Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template-guided questionnaire. The questionnaire explored program delivery, nonexercise components, and program management. Results: Results found that program delivery varied, though many schemes were typically 12 weeks in length, offering participants 2 exercise sessions in a fitness gym or studio per week, using a combination of exercises. Adherence was typically measured through attendance, with nonexercise components and program management varying by scheme. Conclusion: This research provides a snapshot of current delivery approaches and supports the development of a large-scale mapping exercise to review further schemes across the whole of the United Kingdom in order to provide evidence of best practice and delivery approaches nationwide.

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John H. Challis

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Abdulaziz Almudhi and Hamayun Zafar

The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of maximally relaxed lying posture on disfluencies in young adults who stutter. A total of 24 participants (17 males, seven females; mean age = 24.9 ± 6.2 years) with developmental stuttering were a part of the study. The participants were asked to perform spontaneous speaking and reading aloud tasks in standard sitting and maximally relaxed lying postures. The severity of stuttering for the studied postures was estimated by using the Stuttering Severity Instrument. The results on the Stuttering Severity Instrument showed that stuttering parameters improved during the maximally relaxed lying posture compared with the standard sitting position. The results are discussed in the light of motor control concepts. It is concluded that the maximally relaxed lying posture can facilitate improvement in stuttering scores during spontaneous speaking as well as reading aloud in young adults who stutter. Reduced stuttering scores in the maximally relaxed lying posture suggest that speech therapists can position participants in this position while treating people who stutter.

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Mark A. Thompson, Adam R. Nicholls, John Toner, John L. Perry, and Rachel Burke

The authors investigated relationships between emotions, coping, and resilience across two studies. In Study 1a, 319 athletes completed dispositional questionnaires relating to the aforementioned constructs. In Study 1b, 126 athletes from Study 1a repeated the same questionnaires 6 months later. In Study 2, 21 athletes were randomly allocated to an emotional (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant emotions) or control group and undertook a laboratory-based reaction-time task across three time points. Questionnaires and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after each performance with imagery-based emotional manipulations engendered during the second testing session. Partial longitudinal evidence of the broaden-and-build effects of pleasant emotions was found. Pleasant emotions may undo lingering cognitive resource losses incurred from previous unpleasant emotional experiences. In Study 2, pleasant and unpleasant emotions had an immediate and sustained psychophysiological and performance impact. Taken together, this research supports the application of broaden-and-build theory in framing emotional interventions for athletes.

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Deborah L. Feltz

In this brief autobiography, I reflect on how my childhood and adolescent experiences influenced my decision to study the psychology of sport and physical activity. I describe how my research evolved over time, my contributions to the field, and the people who were influential in my career. Finally, I offer some suggestions for how the field of kinesiology, as a whole, might engage in the future.

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Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Francisco Ayala, and Rudolf Psotta

Purpose: To examine the influence of growth and maturation in the trajectory of stretch-shortening cycle capability. Method: Using a mixed-longitudinal design, absolute and relative leg stiffness and reactive strength index (RSI) were measured 3 times over a 3-year period in 44 youth team-sport players. Maturation was determined as maturity offset and included within the Bayesian inference analysis as a covariate alongside chronological age. Results: Irrespective of age and maturation, there was no change in absolute leg stiffness, however relative leg stiffness decreased over time. Maturation and age reduced this decline, but the decline remained significant (Bayesian factor [10] = 5097, model averaged R 2 = .61). The RSI increased over time and more so in older more mature youth players (Bayesian factor [10] = 9.29e 8, model averaged R 2 = .657). Conclusion: In youth players who are at/post peak height velocity, relative leg stiffness appears to decline, which could have an impact on both performance and injury risk. However, RSI increases during this period, and these data reinforce that leg stiffness and RSI reflect different components of stretch-shortening cycle capability. Practitioners should consider these differences when planning training to maximize stretch-shortening cycle capability during growth and maturation in athletes on the developmental performance pathway.

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Kerri Z. Delaney, Leandra Spatari, Mélanie Henderson, Sylvia Santosa, and Marie-Eve Mathieu

Background: To examine substrate oxidation in prepubertal and early pubertal children as a function of body weight, body composition, and sex during an exhaustive cycling test. Methods: This study included 320 children in prepubertal and early puberty (Tanner stage 1 or 2; n = 188 males) who completed a minimum of 4 stages (2–5 min/stage) of an adapted version of the McMaster exhaustive exercise protocol on an upright cycle ergometer. Substrate utilization, relative to individual VO2peak, was determined using VO2 and VCO2 data, obtained with breath-by-breath gas analysis during exercise. Results: Both peak (mg/kg lean body mass·min) and submaximal lipid oxidation (mg/kg lean body mass·min) were highest (P < .01) in children with healthy weight (HW), then overweight, and lowest in obese (OB). Both females with HW (compared with males with HW) and females with OB (compared with males with OB) had higher (P < .01) peak and submaximal lipid oxidation. In children with OB, fat-free mass correlated positively (P < .01) with submaximal lipid oxidation (r = .50). In contrast, in children with HW and overweight, fat-free mass correlated positively (P < .01) with carbohydrate oxidation (r = .52 and r = .47, respectively). Conclusion: Obesity during childhood may alter substrate oxidation during exercise. These results may have implications in the implementation of exercise programs in prepubertal or early puberty to control adiposity.

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Thaís Amanda Reia, Roberta Fernanda da Silva, André Mourão Jacomini, Ana Maria Guilmo Moreno, Letícia Perticarra Ferezin, Sherliane Carla Pereira, Riccardo Lacchini, Thiago José Dionísio, Carlos Ferreira Santos, and Anderson Saranz Zago

Background: This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of physical exercise on nitric oxide concentration and blood pressure (BP) in older adults with different levels of training status (TS) and verified the influence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms on these variables. Methods: A total of 145 older adults were divided into good TS (G1) and weak TS (G2). Participants were subjected to a 40-minute treadmill walk (40%–60% of maximum oxygen consumption) with BP measurements and blood collections for plasma nitrite and oxidative stress biomarkers at pretest and posttest moments. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures with Sidak post hoc test (P < .05) and multivariate linear analysis. Results: After acute exercise, G2 showed an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (P = .008), and both groups showed an increase in systolic BP (P < .001). Polymorphisms 894G > T and intron 4b/a had no association with nitrite and BP. However, −786T > C polymorphism showed an association with reduced systolic and diastolic BP (TT genotype) and increased diastolic BP (TC genotype). Higher TS level was also associated with lower BP. Conclusion: The maintenance of good TS levels may have a protective effect on cardiovascular risks regardless of the genetic profile.