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Valued Insight or Act of Insubordination? How Context Shapes Coaches’ Perceptions of Challenge-Oriented Followership

Marcus Gottlieb, Mark Eys, James Hardy, and Alex J. Benson

Effective leadership is a collaborative effort, requiring a degree of complementarity in how people enact roles of leadership and followership. Using a novel online vignette methodology, we experimentally tested how three contextual factors influenced coaches’ responses to challenge-oriented acts of followership, as well as investigated two potential mechanisms. Coaches (N = 232) watched videos of an athlete provided unsolicited challenge-oriented feedback to a coach. Videos varied by the (a) athlete’s status, (b) presence of third-party observers, and (c) stage of the decision-making process. Following the video, we assessed coaches’ evaluations of the athlete. Challenge-oriented followership was perceived more favorably when enacted by an athlete in one-on-one (vs. in a group) and before a decision has been reached (vs. after a decision is reached). Coaches may appreciate proactivity from athletes in positions of followership, but challenge-oriented followership behaviors enacted at the wrong time and place can elicit negative reactions.

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The Two Dimensions of Passion for Sport: A New Look Using a Quadripartite Approach

Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Patrick Gaudreau, and Sophia Mbabaali

Research relying on the dualistic model of passion has consistently found that harmonious passion for sport is positively associated with adaptive outcomes and that obsessive passion for sport is positively associated with maladaptive outcomes. In this research, we tested if various sport outcomes were related to within-person combinations of both harmonious and obsessive passion. Three samples of athletes (total N = 1,290) completed online surveys that assessed various sport outcomes (e.g., sport enjoyment, goal attainment), along with harmonious and obsessive passion for their sport. We found that athletes were best served by having either high harmonious passion or low obsessive passion or, in many cases, high harmonious passion that was combined with low obsessive passion. These results add to our understanding of passion by showing that combinations of harmonious and obsessive passion for sport are differentially associated with indicators of a positive sport experience.

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“Beyond the Rink”: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Identity Behaviors Captured Using the Electronically Activated Recorder

Jordan D. Herbison, Luc J. Martin, Alex J. Benson, Colin D. McLaren, Richard B. Slatcher, Ian D. Boardley, Jordan Sutcliffe, Jean Côté, Justin M. Carré, and Mark W. Bruner

This study used ecological sampling methods to examine associations between youth athletes’ experiences receiving and engaging in behaviors indicative of in-group ties, cognitive centrality, and in-group affect (i.e., social identity) during a 3-day competitive ice hockey tournament. Forty-five youth (M age = 12.39 years; SD age = 1.14 years; 94% male) from nine teams wore an electronically activated recorder that captured brief (50-s) audio observations throughout the tournament. Participants also completed daily diary questionnaires for each day of competition. Multilevel structural equation modeling demonstrated that athletes were more likely to engage in behaviors indicative of in-group affect and cognitive centrality on days when they received as higher-than-average frequency of behaviors indicative of cognitive centrality from teammates, coaches, and parents. The findings suggest that when team members interact in ways that demonstrate they are thinking about their team, they influence fellow members to behave in ways that promote a sense of “us.”

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Self-Compassion and Reactions to a Recalled Exercise Lapse: The Moderating Role of Gender-Role Schemas

Alana Signore, Brittany N. Semenchuk, and Shaelyn M. Strachan

Exercise is good for health and well-being, yet people experience lapses when trying to adhere to exercise. Self-compassion may help people cope with exercise lapses. Most research on self-compassion and exercise has been conducted with women; men may also benefit from self-compassion. No research has examined whether gender-role schema influences responses to exercise lapses. The authors examined both male and female adult exercisers (N = 220) who reported their self-compassion, recalled an exercise lapse, their reactions to the lapse, and their self-identification of masculinity and femininity. After controlling for self-esteem, age, and lapse importance, self-compassion negatively related to emotional responses (p < .001), rumination (p < .001), extrinsic motivation (p = .004), and positively related to intrinsic motivation (p < .001). Masculinity moderated the relationships between self-compassion and amotivation (p = .006), and identified regulation (p = .01). Self-compassion may be an effective resource for exercisers, especially those who identify as highly masculine.

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“You Kick Like A Girl!” The Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Motor Skill Learning in Young Adolescents

Seyyed Mohammadreza Mousavi, Laura Gray, Sahar Beik, and Maxime Deshayes

This study investigated the effect of gender stereotypes on (a) a soccer learning task based on accuracy (i.e., shooting on different size targets) among young adolescents and (b) the strategy used to score as many points as possible. After performing 10 baseline trials, 45 young adolescents were randomly divided into three groups: positive stereotype, negative stereotype, and control. Then, they performed five blocks of 10 trials and two retention tests, 1 and 3 days after the stereotype manipulation to assess the relatively permanent consequences of stereotype effects. Results showed that when the negative stereotype was induced, participants performed worse during the acquisition phase and the first retention test. The positive stereotype only had a positive effect on performance during the second retention test. These findings provide the first evidence of the effect of gender stereotypes on motor learning tasks requiring accuracy among young adolescents.

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Volume 43 (2021): Issue 5 (Oct 2021)

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Burstiness and Stochasticity in the Malleability of Physical Activity

Vincent Berardi, David Pincus, Evan Walker, and Marc A. Adams

This study examined whether patterns of self-organization in physical activity (PA) predicted long-term success in a yearlong PA intervention. Increased moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was targeted in insufficiently active adults (N = 512) via goal setting and financial reinforcement. The degree to which inverse power law distributions, which are reflective of self-organization, summarized (a) daily MVPA and (b) time elapsed between meeting daily goals (goal attainment interresponse times) was calculated. Goal attainment interresponse times were also used to calculate burstiness, the degree to which meeting daily goals clustered in time. Inverse power laws accurately summarized interresponse times, but not daily MVPA. For participants with higher levels of MVPA early in the study, burstiness in reaching goals was associated with long-term resistance to intervention, while stochasticity in meeting goals predicted receptiveness to intervention. These results suggest that burstiness may measure self-organizing resistance to change, while PA stochasticity could be a precondition for behavioral malleability.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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The Effect of Navigation Demand on Decision Making in a Dynamic, Sport-Inspired Virtual Environment

Jeromy M. Alt, Adam W. Kiefer, Ryan MacPherson, Tehran J. Davis, and Paula L. Silva

Athletes commonly make decisions about the passability of closing gaps when navigating sport environments. This study examined whether increased temporal pressure to arrive at a desired location modifies these decisions. Thirty participants navigated toward a waypoint in a virtual, sport-inspired environment. To do so, they had to decide whether they could pass through closing gaps of virtual humans (and take the shortest route) or steer around them (and take a longer route). The decision boundary of participants who were time pressured to arrive at a waypoint was biased toward end gaps of smaller sizes and was less reliably defined, resulting in a higher number of collisions. Effects of temporal pressure were minimized with experience in the experimental task. Results indicate that temporal pressure affects perceptual–motor processes supporting information pickup and shapes the information–action coupling that drives compliance with navigation demands. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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The Impact of Video Speed on the Estimation of Time Duration in Sport

Lisa-Marie Schütz, Geoffrey Schweizer, and Henning Plessner

The authors investigated the impact of video speed on judging the duration of sport performance. In three experiments, they investigated whether the speed of video presentation (slow motion vs. real time) has an influence on the accuracy of time estimation of sporting activities (n 1 = 103; n 2 = 100; n 3 = 106). In all three studies, the time estimation was more accurate in real time than in slow motion, in which time was overestimated. In two studies, the authors initially investigated whether actions in slow motion are perceived to last longer because the distance they cycled or ran is perceived to be longer (n 4 = 92; n 5 = 106). The results support the hypothesis that the duration of sporting activities is estimated more accurately when they are presented in real time than in slow motion. Sporting officials’ judgments that require accurate time estimation may thus be biased when based on slow-motion displays.