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Danylo F. Cabral, Vinicius S. Santos, Oceano T.T. Pereira, Maria J. Silva, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Tatjana Rundek, David A. Loewenstein, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Augusto C.A. Oliveira, and Joyce Gomes-Osman

In this randomized controlled pilot trial, the authors explored the feasibility, technology compliance, and preliminary efficacy of the Education for Action (EDU-ACT), a multimodal intervention combining evidence-based strategies of physical activity (PA) education and coaching in PA levels over 4 weeks between EDU-ACT and control groups. The authors also assessed pre–post changes in neurocognitive function, functional mobility and dual-task performance, sleep and quality of life. Thirty-two sedentary older adults with memory complaints (age = 66 ± 5.3) completed the study (EDU-ACT = 18 and control = 14). The EDU-ACT adherence rate was 95%, and compliance of daily PA reporting was, on average, 22.7 days (94.6%). The EDU-ACT group demonstrated a significantly greater number of steps, processing speed, and dual-task performance when compared with controls (p < .05). In this study, a multimodal, evidence-based, low-cost intervention was feasible, well-accepted, with high adherence and compliance rates, and effective at promoting clinically meaningful increases in PA, for at least 1 month postintervention, in older adults with memory complaints.

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Anoek M. Adank, Dave H.H. Van Kann, Teun Remmers, Stef P.J. Kremers, and Steven B. Vos

Background: This study examined longitudinal associations of motor competence (MC) and physical activity (PA) enjoyment with moderate to vigorous PA and sedentary behavior among boys and girls aged 10–12 years old. In addition, this study explored the predictive strength of satisfaction of basic psychological needs in physical education (PE) and PA enjoyment. Methods: At 3 time points (baseline, +1 y, and +2 y), PA levels, MC, PA enjoyment, satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE and height and weight of 371 children were measured. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed model analyses stratified for gender and adjusted for relevant covariates. Results: Sedentary behavior decreased over time and was significantly predicted by PA enjoyment in boys and by PA enjoyment and MC in girls. Boys’ moderate to vigorous PA decreased over time and was predicted by MC, whereas girls’ moderate to vigorous PA remained low, yet stable over time and was predicted by PA enjoyment and MC. Furthermore, children’s need for competence and teacher relatedness (girls only) during PE significantly predicted PA enjoyment. Conclusions: Children need sufficient and well-designed opportunities to improve their MC and PA enjoyment. PE may be pivotal in advancing PA enjoyment, indicating that PE could have more beneficial effects on PA levels in children, especially in girls.

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Andrea Ramirez Varela, Robert Sallis, Alex V. Rowlands, and James F. Sallis

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Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III, Bojana Klepac Pogrmilovic, Željko Pedišić, and James F. Sallis

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Eduarda Cristina da Costa Silva, Arthur Oliveira Barbosa, Juliana Maria da Penha Freire Silva, and José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

Context: This study analyzed whether self-efficacy (SE) and perceived environmental characteristics (EC) are determinants of the decline in physical activity (PA) time in adolescents. Methods: This used longitudinal observational approach, with 4 years of data collection, involving 355 adolescents (57.7% girls and 42.3% boys), average age of 11.8 years (0.1 y), from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. SE and EC were measured by scales and PA by a questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to associate SE and EC with a decline in PA. Results: There was a linear trend toward a decrease in average PA duration (58.3 [13.7] min/wk/y) and a rise in average access to places for PA (point per year) (0.6 [0.1]), urban safety (0.2 [0.1]), and traffic safety scores (0.5 [0.1]). The results of multivariable analysis indicated that SE and EC were not associated with the decline in PA. Conclusion: There was a decline in PA time, and SE and perceived EC were not determinants of this decline.

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Mauro F.F. Mediano, Jerome L. Fleg, Amal A. Wanigatunga, Tatiana R. Gonçalves, Pablo Martinez-Amezcua, Moyses Szklo, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Luigi Ferrucci, and Jennifer A. Schrack

Although physical activity (PA) is an important determinant of exercise capacity, the association between these constructs is modest. The authors investigated the associations of self-reported and objectively measured PA with maximal and submaximal tests of exercise capacity. Participants aged ≥40 years (N = 413; 49.6% female) completed a PA questionnaire, wore a uniaxial accelerometer (5.2 ± 1.1 days), and performed maximal (cardiopulmonary exercise test [CPET]) and submaximal (long-distance corridor walk) tests with indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption, V˙O2). Linear regression models were fitted to assess the variation in exercise capacity explained (partial eta squared, η2) by PA variables. Accelerometer-measured vigorous (η2 = 22% female; η2 = 16% male) and total PA (η2 = 17% female; η2 = 13% male) explained the most variance in CPET V˙O2 (p < .001). All η2 values were lower for long-distance corridor walk V˙O22 ≤ 11%). Age contributed more to CPET V˙O2 than any PA variable in males (η2 = 32%), but not in females (η2 = 19%). Vigorous and total PA play important roles in CPET V˙O2 in mid to late life.

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Margaret J.R. Gidgup, Marion Kickett, Tammy Weselman, Keith Hill, Julieann Coombes, Rebecca Ivers, Nicole Bowser, Vilma Palacios, and Anne-Marie Hill

The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to synthesize all evidence to understand the barriers and enablers to older Indigenous peoples (aged 40 years and older) engaging in physical activity. Four databases were searched. Study quality was assessed from an Indigenous perspective, using an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander quality appraisal tool. Data were analyzed using thematic synthesis. There were 4,246 articles screened with 23 articles and one report included from over 30 Indigenous communities across four countries. Cultural Safety and Security was a key enabler, including developing physical activity programs which are led by Indigenous communities and preference Indigenous values. Colonization was a key barrier that created mistrust and uncertainty. Social Determinants of Health, including cost, were supported by successful programs, but if not addressed, were demotivators of engagement. Older Indigenous peoples identified barriers and enablers that can direct the development of sustainable, culturally appropriate physical activity programs.

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Carly Litchfield, Denise M. Connelly, Melissa E. Hay, and Elizabeth Anne Kinsella

This research examined the lived experience of older adult Alpine skiers in their continued participation in competitive ski racing. The aim was to gain an understanding of the meaning of the experiences for older adults as they continued to compete in Alpine ski racing. Masters skiers between the ages of 69 and 82 years participated in individual interviews. Data collection and analysis were iterative processes informed by phenomenological methods and visual mind mapping. The overarching theme identified in participants’ accounts was the significance of the identity of “Beinga Ski Racer. Supporting subthemes were Enjoying the Feeling of Ski Racing, Adapting in the Sport, and Skiing as a Lifestyle. These insights offer the opportunity to encourage and support the holistic experiences of older adults who maintain their athletic identity as they age. This research highlights how inclusion of older adults’ stories may foster critical reflexivity and challenge assumptions about aging.

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Renata Valle Pedroso, Miguel Adriano Sanchez-Lastra, Laura Iglesias Comesaña, and Carlos Ayán

Background: Exercise performed at home could be a useful therapy for people with chronic kidney disease. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at describing the characteristics, main findings, methodological quality, and adherence rate reported in the existent randomized controlled trials that have provided information regarding the impact of home-based exercise programs on people with chronic kidney disease. Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and CENTRAL) were searched up to April 2021, using the keywords: “Exercise”; “Home”; “Kidney Disease.” Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was adopted. Jadad scale and Cochrane’s tool were used to assess the methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: Out of the 14 studies finally selected, 11 were included in the meta-analysis and most presented high methodological quality. The meta-analysis showed significant effects of home-based exercise on fitness and quality of life, but a little impact on renal function. Although exercise performed at home was mostly feasible and safe, adherence was not high and a considerable number of dropouts were observed. Conclusion: Home-based exercise has positive effects on the fitness’ level and on the quality of life on people with chronic kidney disease. Future studies are needed to identify whether exercise performed at home is a better physical therapy option than center-based exercise.

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Jaqueline Mello Porto, Renato Campos Freire Júnior, Luana Letícia Capato, Sállua Berlanga Spilla, Ana Paula Midori Nakaishi, Elisa Braz e Silva, Andrea Fernanda Forestieri Faccio, and Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu

The objective was to investigate the association between rate of torque development (RTD) and torque steadiness (TS) of the lower limb and the occurrence of prospective falls in community-dwelling older adults without falls in the previous year. One hundred older adults performed the tests to obtain the RTD and TS of the hip, knee, and ankle. New episodes of falls were monitored through telephone contact for a prospective period of 12 months. The association of RTD and TS with the occurrence of prospective falls was verified by multiple logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. There was no association between RTD of hip, knee, and ankle and prospective falls. Only the TS at 50% of the peak torque of the hip flexors was associated with the occurrence of future falls (p = .023). Identifying modifiable risk factors for the first fall in older adults is essential for the development of adequate prevention programs.