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A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study of the Relationships Between Perceived Coaching Behaviors and Student Athletes’ Competitive Anxiety

Hong-Yu Cheng and Jia-Nan Wang

Purposes: Student athletes from different cultures might differ in the ways that they experience competitive anxiety, and their coaches with dissimilar cultural backgrounds might also present distinct behavioral traits in coaching. The study assessed and compared the competitive anxiety experienced by Chinese student athletes (in a collectivist culture) and American student athletes (in an individualist culture) by using a new competitive anxiety model and examined how their distinct ways of experiencing competitive anxiety might relate to the leading behaviors of Chinese and American coaches. Method: Relevant measures were administered to 258 Chinese student athletes and 214 American student athletes to assess their competitive anxiety and perceived leading behaviors of their coaches. Results: Chinese student athletes scored significantly higher on social expectation anxiety and somatic anxiety in comparison with American student athletes. Chinese student athletes perceived higher levels of training and instruction, and autocratic behaviors of coaches, and American student athletes perceived higher levels of democratic behaviors of coaches. Conclusions: This study revealed the different ways of experiencing certain aspects of competitive anxiety between Chinese and American student athletes, which could be at least partially explained by the distinct leading behaviors of Chinese and American coaches perceived by student athletes in the research.

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A Systematic Review Investigating the Effects of Implementing Game-Based Approaches in School-Based Physical Education Among Primary School Children

Jin Yan, Brad Jones, Jordan J. Smith, Philip Morgan, and Narelle Eather

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of game-based approaches on game performance, fundamental movement skills, health-related indicators, and physical activity outcomes among children (5–12 years) when delivered in the primary physical education school setting. Method: A systematic search of six electronic databases without date limitation was conducted on June 11, 2021. Results: Among included studies (N = 17), positive outcomes were found for children’s game performance, fundamental movement skills, physical and mental health, and/or physical activity. Game-based approaches intervention success appears to be related to the contents of teacher training, especially the inclusion of a theory-based syllabus, mentoring, and reflection sessions. Conclusions: The findings of this review confirm that hybrid sport education-invasion games interventions delivered in primary schools are beneficial for improving a range of student outcomes. To improve physical self-perception, intrinsic motivation, well-being, physiological, and potential psychological outcomes for children, it is necessary to explore more game-based approaches’ longitudinal and intervention research with high quality.

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Tribute to Professor Michael W. Metzler Co-Founder of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

Mark S. Freedman, Jackie Lund, Hans van der Mars, and Phillip Ward

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The Effect of a Coaching Clinic on Student-Coaches’ Behavior During a Basketball Sport Education Season With Preservice Teachers

Peter Iserbyt, Toon Dehandschutter, Hilde Leysen, and Hans van der Mars

Purpose: To investigate (a) if a coaching clinic (CC) impacted student-coaches’ behavior and academic learning time during a basketball Sport Education season and (b) if 3v3 game performance improved as a function of the coaching clinic. Method: Preservice teachers (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a CC or a comparison group and taught a 16-lesson Sport Education-based basketball season. The CC group received a coaching clinic in which student-coaches were introduced to core instructional skills, including task organization, task presentation, and delivering congruent feedback. Results: For both groups, coaching time significantly increased from 11.5% to 34.1%, p = .02, as well as cognitive learner involvement, p < .01. CC coaches provided significantly more demonstrations, p < .02. Players in the CC group had significantly greater improvement in 3v3 game play, p = .01. Conclusion: The clinic positively impacted student-coaches’ demonstrations, which likely contributed to improved 3v3 performance.

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Influence of Secondary Organizational Socialization on How Physical Education Teacher Education Program Coordinators Execute Their Administrative Roles and Responsibilities

Craig Parkes, Jamie Jacob Brunsdon, and Nick O’Leary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of secondary organizational socialization on how physical education teacher education program coordinators execute their administrative roles and responsibilities. Two female program coordinators located within the United States were individually interviewed and provided documentation for analysis. Data analysis was conducted using analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. Both participants acted as customizers, persuaders, and interpreters. The factors influencing the socialization of physical education teacher education coordinators were department faculty, college administration, student enrollment data, and cooperating teacher feedback. Although working at very different institutions, the roles, responsibilities, and socialization influences for both participants were similar. In addition, and despite the prevalence of low enrollments and the educative teacher performance assessment, program coordinators appeared to negate these issues and were effective in executing their administrative roles and responsibilities. These findings would be of interest to those interested in and/or currently maintaining administrative positions in physical education teacher education.

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“We’ve Never Studied Bullying at University:” Bullying-Related Beliefs, Training, and Strategies Among Physical Education Preservice Teachers

Xènia Ríos, Carles Ventura, and Maria Prat

Purpose: To examine beliefs about bullying in physical education (PE) among PE preservice teachers and to examine opinions about training received in this area and the strategies they would use to deal with this phenomenon. Method: We interviewed 44 PE-PSTs (M age = 23.91; SD = 2.96) from six Spanish universities in semistructured focus groups. The data collected were analyzed using hierarchical content analysis. Results: PE preservice teachers believed that while PE may favor the occurrence of bullying, with proper management, it could also be used to educate students and create a positive climate that could help prevent this behavior. The trainee teachers stated that they had not received any training on bullying at university. Overall, they lacked confidence to deal with this problem, and their proposed strategies lacked depth. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for universities to include bullying in their PE teacher training programs.

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Another Decade of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education

Shelby E. Ison, Kevin Andrew Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Thomas J. Templin

Background: Over the past several decades, scholars have regularly reviewed qualitative research published in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, among other outlets, to understand the developing role of qualitative methods in physical education and sport pedagogy. In this review, the authors present a descriptive and thematic analysis of qualitative research articles published between 2009 and 2019, extending previous reviews. Methods: A total of 137 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component (38.48%). This included purely qualitative studies (28.37%) as well as those using mixed methods (10.11%). Results: Descriptive results include analyses of article classifications, authorship, participants, theoretical/conceptual frameworks, qualitative methodologies, data collection methods, and data analysis and trustworthiness strategies. Inductive analysis of the 137 qualitative containing articles resulted in six themes and corresponding subthemes of research foci. Conclusions: Suggestions for future submissions to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education are also presented.

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Physical Education Curricular Elements in Blended Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Francisco Javier Gil-Espinosa, Iván López-Fernández, Rubén Espejo, and Rafael Burgueño

Purpose: To describe the curricular elements in blended physical education (PE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A survey of PE teachers was conducted regarding curricular elements related to content blocks, instruction, and assessment. A total of 174 Spanish secondary PE teachers (120 men and 54 women) participated in the survey. Results: For the nonface-to-face part, instruction relied mainly on challenge-based learning as an instructional strategy, the learning of the designed individual program as a teaching–learning style, health-based PE as a pedagogical model, and self-assessment as the most used assessment form. Discussion/Conclusion: The study describes an overview of the characteristics of the curricular elements used in the blended learning PE model in secondary education. Both the age of PE teachers and the socioeconomic level of the families are variables to consider.

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Preservice Physical Education Teacher Preparation for Health-Related Fitness Testing: A Faculty Perspective

Xiaolu Liu, Xiaofen D. Hamilton, Rulan Shangguan, Jingwen Liu, Sarah J. Wall, and Richard Guerra

Purpose: This study aimed to examine how physical education teacher education (PETE) programs prepare preservice physical education teachers (PPETs) for implementing health-related fitness testing (HRFT) in K–12 schools from a faculty perspective. Methods: The study applied a phenomenological approach. Seven PETE faculty participated in this study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, online surveys, and course documents. Constant content analysis was performed to generate themes. Results: The study discovered four themes: (a) required courses are the primary means for preparing PPETs to use HRFT, (b) cooperating teachers can negatively influence the faculty’s role in HRFT preparation, (c) PPETs explored the use of HRFT in PETE programs through peer teaching and testing activities, and (d) there was a lack of field-based experiences in local schools for HRFT preparation. Conclusion: PETE programs provided some courses to prepare PPETs for the HRFT implementation with the lack of time and field experience.

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Effectiveness of Adventure Education on Health Outcomes Related to Physical, Psychological, and Social Development in Children: A Systematic Review

Zhou Peng and Patrick W.C. Lau

Objective: This systematic review aims to investigate the impact of adventure education (AE) on children’s physical, psychological, and social development (children’s age range: 0–18 years old). Methods: The review was reported based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA 2015). Articles were retrieved from seven databases (EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Psychology Database) from 2000 to 2021. Methodological quality was examined according to Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-tool for randomized trials (RoB 2). Results: Eighteen studies were screened. AE was found to contribute to the improvement of physical development in nonhealthy children aged 9 to 16 years and nonhealthy children aged 3 to 7 years. All results showed a positive psychological impact of AE except for inconsistent results for self-esteem, self-efficacy, and quality of life. Moreover, AE was found to be an approach that enhanced social development among nonhealthy and healthy children aged 11–17 years and nonhealthy children aged 3–7 years. Conclusion: AE intervention produces physical, psychological, and social benefits in children. Most studies analyzed in this review focused on 9- to 18-year-old unhealthy and healthy children. Only one study involved 3- to 7-year-old unhealthy children. However, most of the studies in this field have weak methodological quality, and thus, the present evidence should be interpreted carefully. Future work with superior methodology in AE intervention would help us establish a greater degree of accuracy in this area of study. Implications: AE intervention with better study design is needed. Research also needs to be conducted to examine the effectiveness of AE on physical, psychological, and social development in healthy younger children.