Browse

You are looking at 131 - 140 of 913 items for :

  • Motor Control x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

The Imitation Game in Children With Tourette Syndrome: A Lack of Impulse Control to Mirror Environmental Stimuli

Matteo Briguglio, Roberta Galentino, Sara De Michele, Bernardo Dell’Osso, Leonardo Fogassi, and Mauro Porta

The learning process in humans requires continuous contacts with environmental stimuli, especially during neurodevelopmental growth. These functions are assisted by the coding potential of mirror neurons to serve social interactions. This ability to learn imitating the observed behavior is no longer necessary during adulthood, and control mechanisms prevent automatic mirroring. However, children with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could encounter coding errors at the level of the mirror neurons system as these cortical regions are themselves the ones affected in the syndrome. Combined with impulsivity, the resulting sign would be a manifest echopraxia that persists throughout adulthood, averting these individuals from the appraisal of a spot-on motor control.

Restricted access

Increased Speed Elicited More Automatized but Less Predictable Control in Cyclical Arm and Leg Movements

Werner A.F. van de Ven, Jurjen Bosga, Wim Hullegie, Wiebe C. Verra, and Ruud G.J. Meulenbroek

The present study explores variations in the degree of automaticity and predictability of cyclical arm and leg movements. Twenty healthy adults were asked to walk on a treadmill at a lower-than-preferred speed, their preferred speed, and at a higher-than-preferred speed. In a separate, repetitive punching task, the three walking frequencies were used to cue the target pace of the cyclical arm movements. Movements of the arms, legs, and trunk were digitized with inertial sensors. Whereas absolute slope values (|β|) of the linear fit to the power spectrum of the digitized movements (p < .001, η2 = .676) were systematically smaller in treadmill walking than in repetitive punching, sample entropy measures (p < .001, η2 = .570) were larger reflecting the former task being more automated but also less predictable than the latter task. In both tasks, increased speeds enhanced automatized control (p < .001, η2 = .475) but reduced movement predictability (p = .008, η2 = .225). The latter findings are potentially relevant when evaluating effects of task demand changes in clinical contexts.

Restricted access

Volume 25 (2021): Issue 4 (Oct 2021)

Restricted access

Expertise- and Tempo-Related Performance Differences in Unimanual Drumming

Bryony Buck, Scott Beveridge, Gerard Breaden Madden, and Hans-Christian Jabusch

Background: High-speed drumming requires precise control over the timing, velocity, and magnitude of striking movements. Aim: To examine effects of tempo and expertise on unaccented repetitive drumming performance using 3D motion capture. Methods: Expert and amateur drummers performed unimanual, unaccented, repetitive drum strikes, using their dominant right hand, at five different tempi. Performance was examined with regard to timing variability, striking velocity variability, the ability to match the prescribed tempo, and additional variables. Results: Permutated multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed significant main effects of tempo (p < .001) and expertise (p <.001) on timing variability and striking velocity variability; low timing variability and low striking velocity variability were associated with low/medium tempo as well as with increased expertise. Individually, improved precision appeared across an optimum tempo range. Precision was poorest at maximum tempo (400 hits per minute) for precision variables. Conclusions: Expert drummers demonstrated greater precision and consistency than amateurs. Findings indicate an optimum tempo range that extends with increased expertise.

Restricted access

Effects of Eight Methods and Five Steps of Tai Chi Practice on Balance Control Among Older Adults

Xiu Hu, Shaojun Lyu, Min Mao, Jianwei Zhang, Wei Sun, Cui Zhang, and Qipeng Song

The team developed the newly compiled eight methods and five steps of Tai Chi (EMFSTC), which includes introductory routines to Tai Chi characterized by simple structures. This study examined the effectiveness of EMFSTC practice on balance control. A total of 31 participants were randomly assigned to EMFSTC (n = 15, age = 66.4 ± 1.7 years, received 16-week EMFSTC practice) or control (n = 16, age = 66.7 ± 1.8 years, received no practice) groups. Significant group by training interactions were observed. After EMFSTC practice, balance control improved, as indicated by decreased root mean square and mean velocity of center of pressure, proprioception threshold during knee extension, and plantar tactile sensitivity threshold at the arch. EMFSCT can be an effective rehabilitation modality to improve balance control among older adults.

Restricted access

The Nature of Finger Enslaving: New Results and Their Implications

Valters Abolins and Mark L. Latash

We present a review on the phenomenon of unintentional finger action seen when other fingers of the hand act intentionally. This phenomenon (enslaving) has been viewed as a consequence of both peripheral (e.g., connective tissue links and multifinger muscles) and neural (e.g., projections of corticospinal pathways) factors. Recent studies have shown relatively large and fast drifts in enslaving toward higher magnitudes, which are not perceived by subjects. These and other results emphasize the defining role of neural factors in enslaving. We analyze enslaving within the framework of the theory of motor control with spatial referent coordinates. This analysis suggests that unintentional finger force changes result from drifts of referent coordinates, possibly reflecting the spread of cortical excitation.

Restricted access

Watching Your Neck: The Influence of Real-Time Visual Feedback on Cervical Joint Position Sense in Chronic Neck Pain

Konstantin Beinert, Katharina Deutsch, Sebastian Löscher, and Martin Diers

Patients with neck pain demonstrate a variety of sensorimotor impairments, such as decreased cervical joint position sense (CJPS) acuity, which might also be associated with an impaired internal body representation. The present study evaluated the effect of real-time visual feedback of the individual’s own neck on CJPS compared to observing a book. Twenty-three patients with neck pain participated in the experiment and received the interventions in randomized order on separate days in a within-subject pretest–posttest design. Before and immediately after each intervention, CJPS was measured by a therapist blinded to the intervention. The results demonstrate a significantly different development of CJPS (p = .04), with increased CJPS acuity after observing one’s own neck and decreased acuity after observing a book. Real-time visual feedback of the neck improved CJPS acuity in patients with neck pain without active movements of the neck, indicating the importance of central nervous system processing for CJPS acuity.

Restricted access

Development of Laterality and Bimanual Interference of Fine Motor Movements in Childhood and Adolescence

Brenda Carolina Nájera Chávez, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Roland Burghardt, and Pablo Hernáiz Driever

Drawing and handwriting are fine motor skills acquired during childhood. We analyzed the development of laterality by comparing the performance of the dominant with the nondominant hand and the effect of bimanual interference in kinematic hand movement parameters (speed, automation, variability, and pressure). Healthy subjects (n = 187, 6–18 years) performed drawing tasks with both hands on a digitizing tablet followed by performance in the presence of an interfering task of the nondominant hand. Age correlated positively with speed, automation, and pressure, and negatively with variability for both hands. As task complexity increased, differences between both hands were less pronounced. Playing an instrument had a positive effect on the nondominant hand. Speed and automation showed a strong association with lateralization. Bimanual interference was associated with an increase of speed and variability. Maturation of hand laterality and the extent of bimanual interference in fine motor tasks are age-dependent processes.

Restricted access

Current Movement Follows Previous Nontarget Movement With Somatosensory Stimulation

Hitoshi Oda, Yasushi Sawaguchi, Hiroshi Kunimura, Taku Kawasaki, and Koichi Hiraoka

This study examined whether the current movement follows the previous movement and whether this process is enhanced by somatosensory stimulation or is gated while retrieving and using the memory of the previously practiced target end point. Healthy humans abducted the index finger to a previously practiced target (target movement) or abducted it freely without aiming at the target (nontarget movement). The end point of the nontarget movement had a positive correlation with the previous nontarget movement only when somatosensory stimulation was given during the previous movement, indicating that the current nontarget movement follows the previous nontarget movement with somatosensory stimulation. No conclusive evidence of whether this process is gated by retrieving and using the memory of the previously practiced target was found.

Open access

Holographic Sight Improves the Static Shooting Accuracy and Vertical Sway Precision During High-Intensity Dynamic Action in the Police Task Force

Michal Vágner, Zdeněk Bílek, Karel Sýkora, Vladimír Michalička, Lubomír Přívětivý, Miloš Fiala, Adam Maszczyk, and Petr Stastny

The aim of this study was to find the effect of holographic sight (HS) on short-distance shooting accuracy and precision during static and high-intensity dynamic actions. Twenty policemen (31 ± 2.2 years, 85.6 ± 6.1 kg, and 181.9 ± 4.4 cm) performed five shots in the 10-s limit under the static condition for 20 m and dynamic condition 15–5 m, and after 4 × 10 m sprint action, both with fixed sight (FS) and HS. The analysis of variance post hoc test revealed that HSstatic had higher shouting accuracy than FSstatic, FSdynamic, and HSdynamic (p = .03, p = .0001, and p = .0001, respectively) and FSdynamic had lower precision than FSstatic, HSstatic, and HSdynamic (p = .0003, p = .0001, and p = .01, respectively) in vertical sway. The HS for rifles has improved the accuracy of static shooting and vertical sway precision of dynamic shooting.