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Computerized Cognitive Function Does Not Correlate With Choice Reaction Time During a Hopping Task

Ke’La H. Porter, Nathan Morelli, Nicholas R. Heebner, Jenna Wilson, Allison M. Parks, Dong Y. Han, and Matthew C. Hoch

Context: Cognitive performance has been shown to be associated with musculoskeletal injury risk. Cognitive assessments are often administered in controlled environments despite sport settings challenging cognition in uncontrolled, less predictable environments. Cognitive assessments should be representative of sport demands; thus, integrating motor with cognitive assessments may be more clinically relevant. Accordingly, the purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between tablet-based cognitive tests and choice reaction time during a hopping task. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: A total of 20 healthy participants volunteered to participate. Participants completed 3 tablet-based cognitive assessments. Average raw response time and fully corrected scores were used for analysis. In addition, participants completed a choice reaction hopping task to capture neuromuscular–cognitive reaction time. Participants completed a forward hop over a hurdle, landing on a single limb. Light sensors were utilized for the choice reaction component to capture reaction time in seconds, cue them when to hop, and indicate the landing limb. The relationship between the tablet-based cognitive assessments and reaction time during a hopping task was examined with Pearson correlations (α = .05). Results: The choice reaction time from the hop task had a negligible correlation (r = −.20−.07) to the fully corrected tablet-based cognitive tests. The choice reaction time from the hop task had a negligible correlation (r = .02) to the average response time of the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test and a low correlation (r = .34−.36) to the Dimensional Change Card Sort Test and Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test. Conclusions: This study determined that tablet-based cognitive assessments had trivial relationships to choice reaction time during a hopping task. This research has implications as clinicians aim to evaluate and analyze cognitive performance. Although reaction time was a critical component of all the assessments in this study, an individual’s performance on a tablet-based assessment does not indicate performance during a functional reaction time assessment.

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The Effect of Real-Time Tibial Acceleration Feedback on Running Biomechanics During Gait Retraining: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xiaohan Li, Junwu Yu, Jianjuan Bai, Huiming Huang, Shanshan Ying, Aiwen Wang, and Ping Wang

Objectives: To explore the immediate and retention effect of real-time tibial acceleration feedback on running biomechanics during gait retraining. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published before May 2022. The included studies were evaluated for methodological quality and bias risk, and data were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted on the primary outcomes, including peak tibial acceleration (PTA) and vertical ground reaction force. Subgroup analysis was performed by gender, feedback criterion, mode, dosage, fading, retention period, and running environment to evaluate the source of heterogeneity. Qualitative analysis was performed to describe other variables. Results: Fourteen studies (174 participants) were eligible. Meta-analysis showed that real-time tibial acceleration feedback reduced PTA (P < .01, P < .01), vertical impact peak (P = .004, P < .01), vertical average loading rate (P < .01, P < .01), and vertical instantaneous loading rate (P < .01, P < .01) after feedback and during retention period (5 min–12 mo). Subgroup analysis showed that the immediate effect of vertical impact peak was more noticeable with mixed gender (P = .005) and fading feedback (P = .005) conditions, and the retention effect of PTA was more noticeable with high feedback dosage (P < .01) and fading feedback (P < .01) conditions. Conclusions: Real-time tibial acceleration feedback can reduce PTA and vertical ground reaction force during gait retraining, and for periods of 5 minutes to 12 months when the feedback is removed.

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Rasch Calibration of the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form

Seungho Ryu, Ryan Richardson, Adam C. Cady, Ashley Reeves, Madeline P. Casanova, and Russell T. Baker

Context: Among numerous knee-related patient-reported outcome measures, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF) has been used across a wide variety of knee pathologies. However, traditional validation procedures (classical test theory) and existing studies (estimating item parameters) have limitations in establishing the measurement properties of the IKDC-SKF. Rasch analysis reveals a strong validation approach to improve IKDC-SKF clinical interpretation with larger samples. Objective: To assess psychometric properties, including differential item functioning, of the IKDC-SKF as a patient-reported measure of knee function. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary data. Data were extracted from the cloud-based orthopedic and sports medicine global registry Surgical Outcome System (Arthrex). Patients: A total of 1725 individuals who underwent an arthroscopic knee procedure and completed all items on the IKDC-SKF. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rasch analysis including model-data fit, rating scale’s function, item-person map (distribution of item difficulty and person ability), and differential item functioning (sex and age groups) was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IKDC-SKF. Results: Ten misfit items were found and removed. The 5-point Likert scale of the 9-item IKDC-SKF worked well. Item difficulty ranged from 0.58 to 0.81 logits, and person’s knee function had ranged from –5.56 to 4.86 logits, with a wide distribution. The IKDC-SKF was found to function similarly for sex (male vs female) and age. Conclusions: Rasch analysis identified a unidimensional structure retaining 9 of the original IKDC-SKF items; however, a more comprehensive inventory is necessary to assess a wider range of knee function and improve measurement validity.

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Activation of Anterolateral Abdominal Muscles During Sling Bridge Exercises: Comparison of Different Pelvic Positions

Seungmin Kim, Jhosedyn Carolaym Salazar Fajardo, and BumChul Yoon

Context: Inappropriate activation of the anterolateral abdominal muscles affects the stability of the lumbopelvic zone and increases the appearance of pain and lesion in the area. Therefore, ways to improve its effective contraction are crucial in rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the activation of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles in 3 different pelvic positions (down pelvis [DP], horizontal pelvis [HP], and up pelvis [UP]) during sling bridge exercise (SBE) to determinate which position is more effective to promote a correct contraction of the anterolateral abdominal muscles. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Fifteen participants performed 3 variations (DP, HP, and UP) of a one-legged exercise called “supine pelvic lift” on a sling device. The thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO were recorded at rest and at the 3 positions using ultrasound imaging. Thickness, change ratio, lateral slide of TrA, and preferential and contraction activation ratio of TrA, IO, and EO were analyzed. Results: TrA and IO showed greater activation (P = .01) in the UP position than the other pelvic positions. In addition, UP position decreased the activation of the EO (P = .01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, SBE in the UP position has the potential to improve normal contraction patterns of the musculature and can be used in future intervention of the lumbopelvic zone.

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Body Composition Asymmetry in University Rugby Players: Influence of Sex, Position, and Injury

Tamara R. Cohen, Brent Rosenstein, Amanda Rizk, Stephane Frenette, and Maryse Fortin

Context: Measures of side-to-side asymmetry in body composition may help identify players who are predisposed to lower limb injuries (LLI) or lower back pain (LBP). This study aimed to examine (1) side-to-side asymmetry in college rugby players according to sex and position and (2) whether side-to-side asymmetry is associated with LBP or LLI. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty-six rugby players (61% female) underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment for total and regional (appendicular, truncal) outcomes of fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass. A subsample (n = 23) of players had a second dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment 2 months postbaseline. Two-way analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of position (forward and backs) and sex on body composition asymmetry. Student paired t tests were used to assess side-to-side difference in body composition and compare baseline and follow-up measures. Logistic regression was used to assess possible associations between LLI, LBP, and the degree of side-to-side asymmetry in body composition. Results: Male players had greater asymmetry in arm bone mass compared with female players (P = .026), and trunk fat mass asymmetry was greater in forwards as compared with backs (P = .017). Forwards had significantly greater fat mass (P = .004) and percentage of fat (P = .048) on the right leg compared with the left. Backs had significantly greater bone mass in the right arm compared with the left (P = .015). From baseline to postseason, forwards had a significant increase in side-to-side asymmetry in arm lean mass (P = .006) and a significant decrease in side-to-side asymmetry in leg fat mass (P = .032). In backs, side-to-side asymmetry at baseline compared with postseason was significantly different (P = .011) for trunk fat mass. There were no significant associations between body composition asymmetry, LLI, or LBP by sex or position. Conclusion: Our results revealed the presence of side-to-side asymmetries in body composition in university rugby players between sex and position. The amount of asymmetry, however, was not associated with LBP and LLI.

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Volume 32 (2023): Issue 2 (Feb 2023): Special Section: Ankle Outcomes and Large Datasets

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Mental Fatigue Uniquely Influences Drop Landing Biomechanics for Individuals With a Concussion History

Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff

Context: Induced mental fatigue negatively impacts sport performance and neurocognition. However, it is unclear how induced mental fatigue influences landing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mental fatigue on drop landing biomechanics in individuals with and without a concussion history. Design: Crossover design. Methods: Forty-eight (24 per group) recreationally active individuals were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). All participants completed an experimental (30-min Stroop task) and control (30-min reading magazines) intervention on separate days separated by a minimum of 24 hours. Drop landings were performed before and after both interventions. Outcomes included peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vertical loading rate (VLR), knee flexion angle, knee abduction angle, external knee flexion moment, external knee abduction moment, and initial ground contact knee flexion and knee abduction angles. Separate 2 (group) × 2 (intervention) between-within analyses of covariance compared drop landing outcomes. Each group’s average pre-Stroop and premagazine outcomes were covariates. Results: There was a significant interaction for vGRF (P = .033, η p 2 = .097 ) and VLR (P = .0497, η p 2 = .083 ). The vGRF simple effects were not statistically significantly (P range = .052–.325). However, individuals with a concussion history displayed a medium effect size for greater vGRF post-Stroop compared with their own postmagazine vGRF (mean difference (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.163 (–0.002 to 0.327) bodyweight (BW), p =.052, η p 2 = .081 . In contrast, the control group displayed a small effect size (mean difference [95% CI] = 0.095 [–0.069 to 0.259] BW, p =.251, η p 2 = .029 ). Individuals with a concussion history displayed greater VLR post-Stroop compared with controls (mean difference [95% CI], 26.29 [6.19 to 46.40] BW/s, P = .012, η p 2 = .134 ) and their own postmagazine values (mean difference [95% CI] = 32.61 [7.80 to 57.42] BW/s, p =.011, η p 2 = .135 ). Conclusion: Mental fatigue leads to greater VLR for individuals with a concussion history. Athletic competition and activities of daily living can increase mental fatigue. Training programs may seek to teach mental fatigue reducing strategies to athletes with a concussion history.

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The Effects of Vibration Exposure on Lower-Limb Extensor Muscles’ Stiffness, Elasticity, and Strength Responses in Untrained Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Filiz Başol, İlke Kara, and Tülay Çevik Saldıran

Objectives: The whole-body vibration (WBV) effects on muscle strength show inconsistent results. Moreover, there is no study about the WBV effect on stiffness, elasticity, and muscle strength. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the effect of WBV exposure with static squat posture on the stiffness, elasticity, and strength of the lower-limb extensor muscles. Material and Methods: Forty healthy untrained young adults were divided into WBV and control groups. The experimental group received WBV exposure on 2 nonconsecutive days of the week, for 6 weeks. The MyotonPRO device was used for the assessment of the knee extensor and the ankle dorsiflexors’ stiffness and elasticity. Isometric muscle strength was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer. All measurements were done by the same assessor at baseline, and the following 6 weeks. Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the elasticity scores of the right (d = 0.84, P = .01) and left (d = 0.77, P = .02) ankle dorsiflexors. Similar to the elasticity measurements, significant group-by-time interactions were observed in the muscle strength scores of the right (d = 0.45, P = .046) and left (d = 1.25, P < .001) ankle dorsiflexors. No significant effects were observed in any of the evaluated muscle stiffness measurements (P > .05), and there was no significant group-by-time interaction in knee-extensor muscle strength and elasticity scores (P > .05). Conclusions: The study results indicate that if the ankle dorsiflexor strength and elasticity are desired to be increased, the 6-week WBV exposure in a static squat posture can be used in healthy individuals.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport After Injury Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version

Nahid Pirayeh, Farshid Razavi, Amin Behdarvandan, and Neda Mostafaee

Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) is used to measure athletes’ psychological readiness in terms of their emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal with respect to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the ACL-RSI to the Persian version and evaluate the reliability and validity of this scale in patients with ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Clinical measurement study (psychometric analysis). Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, 100 participants were asked to complete the Persian version of the ACL-RSI 2 times with a 7- to 10-day interval. In the first assessment, the patients also filled the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, α), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), measurement error (standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change), and construct validity (Pearson r) were determined. Results: Our results showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = .94) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = .90 (.85−.93)]. Standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change were 4.64 and 12.85, respectively. No significant bias was observed between test and retest. In addition, based on the results of correlation analysis, all hypotheses of this study were confirmed. The Persian version of the ACL-RSI had a strong correlation with Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PPR) (P < .001, r = .76) and Tampa scale of Kinesiophobia (TKS) (P < .001, r = −.68). Furthermore, a moderate correlation was observed between the Persian version of the ACL-RSI and the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (P < .001, r = .44) and between this version of the ACL-RSI and the subscales of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (P < .001, r = .30–.55). Conclusion: Given its acceptable reliability and validity, the Persian version of the ACL-RSI seems to be a suitable tool for evaluating psychological readiness to return to sport after ACL reconstruction.

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Comparison of the Effects of Isometric Horizontal Abduction on Shoulder Muscle Activity During Wall Push-Up Plus and Wall Slide in Individuals With Scapular Winging

Seok-Hyun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Ji-Hyun Lee, and Seung-Min Baik

Context: Wall push-up plus (WPP) and wall slide (WS) are commonly prescribed in early rehabilitation to increase serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. For individuals with scapular winging (SW), synergistic muscles such as upper trapezius (UT) and pectoralis major (PM) may compensate for weak SA during scapular movement. However, no studies have applied isometric horizontal abduction (IHA) during WS in individuals with SW nor have compared it with WPP with IHA. Objectives: This study compared the effects of IHA on shoulder muscle activity during WPP and WS exercises in individuals with SW. Design: Cross-sectional study; 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of observed differences in SA, UT, PM, lower trapezius (LT), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activities. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients: We recruited 30 individuals with SW comprising 20 men and 10 women. Interventions: The individuals performed WPP and WS exercises with and without IHA using Thera-Band. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity of the SA, UT, PM, LT, and IS during the isometric phase of WPP and WS. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions were recorded to normalize electromyographic data. Results: There was no significant interaction between IHA application and exercise type for any of the shoulder muscles. IHA application increased SA (P = .008), UT (P = .001), LT (P = .009), and IS (P = .000) activities and decreased PM (P = .001) activity compared with those without IHA. WS exercises elicited higher PM (P = .017) and LT (P = .011) activities than WPP. Conclusion: WPP and WS with IHA may be effective in increasing the muscle activities of shoulder stabilizers and preventing overactivation of PM activity. WPP may be recommended for individuals with overactivated PM, whereas WS may be used to increase LT activity.