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Self-Compassion and Reactions to a Recalled Exercise Lapse: The Moderating Role of Gender-Role Schemas

Alana Signore, Brittany N. Semenchuk, and Shaelyn M. Strachan

Exercise is good for health and well-being, yet people experience lapses when trying to adhere to exercise. Self-compassion may help people cope with exercise lapses. Most research on self-compassion and exercise has been conducted with women; men may also benefit from self-compassion. No research has examined whether gender-role schema influences responses to exercise lapses. The authors examined both male and female adult exercisers (N = 220) who reported their self-compassion, recalled an exercise lapse, their reactions to the lapse, and their self-identification of masculinity and femininity. After controlling for self-esteem, age, and lapse importance, self-compassion negatively related to emotional responses (p < .001), rumination (p < .001), extrinsic motivation (p = .004), and positively related to intrinsic motivation (p < .001). Masculinity moderated the relationships between self-compassion and amotivation (p = .006), and identified regulation (p = .01). Self-compassion may be an effective resource for exercisers, especially those who identify as highly masculine.

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“You Kick Like A Girl!” The Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Motor Skill Learning in Young Adolescents

Seyyed Mohammadreza Mousavi, Laura Gray, Sahar Beik, and Maxime Deshayes

This study investigated the effect of gender stereotypes on (a) a soccer learning task based on accuracy (i.e., shooting on different size targets) among young adolescents and (b) the strategy used to score as many points as possible. After performing 10 baseline trials, 45 young adolescents were randomly divided into three groups: positive stereotype, negative stereotype, and control. Then, they performed five blocks of 10 trials and two retention tests, 1 and 3 days after the stereotype manipulation to assess the relatively permanent consequences of stereotype effects. Results showed that when the negative stereotype was induced, participants performed worse during the acquisition phase and the first retention test. The positive stereotype only had a positive effect on performance during the second retention test. These findings provide the first evidence of the effect of gender stereotypes on motor learning tasks requiring accuracy among young adolescents.

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Volume 43 (2021): Issue 5 (Oct 2021)

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Burstiness and Stochasticity in the Malleability of Physical Activity

Vincent Berardi, David Pincus, Evan Walker, and Marc A. Adams

This study examined whether patterns of self-organization in physical activity (PA) predicted long-term success in a yearlong PA intervention. Increased moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was targeted in insufficiently active adults (N = 512) via goal setting and financial reinforcement. The degree to which inverse power law distributions, which are reflective of self-organization, summarized (a) daily MVPA and (b) time elapsed between meeting daily goals (goal attainment interresponse times) was calculated. Goal attainment interresponse times were also used to calculate burstiness, the degree to which meeting daily goals clustered in time. Inverse power laws accurately summarized interresponse times, but not daily MVPA. For participants with higher levels of MVPA early in the study, burstiness in reaching goals was associated with long-term resistance to intervention, while stochasticity in meeting goals predicted receptiveness to intervention. These results suggest that burstiness may measure self-organizing resistance to change, while PA stochasticity could be a precondition for behavioral malleability.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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The Effect of Navigation Demand on Decision Making in a Dynamic, Sport-Inspired Virtual Environment

Jeromy M. Alt, Adam W. Kiefer, Ryan MacPherson, Tehran J. Davis, and Paula L. Silva

Athletes commonly make decisions about the passability of closing gaps when navigating sport environments. This study examined whether increased temporal pressure to arrive at a desired location modifies these decisions. Thirty participants navigated toward a waypoint in a virtual, sport-inspired environment. To do so, they had to decide whether they could pass through closing gaps of virtual humans (and take the shortest route) or steer around them (and take a longer route). The decision boundary of participants who were time pressured to arrive at a waypoint was biased toward end gaps of smaller sizes and was less reliably defined, resulting in a higher number of collisions. Effects of temporal pressure were minimized with experience in the experimental task. Results indicate that temporal pressure affects perceptual–motor processes supporting information pickup and shapes the information–action coupling that drives compliance with navigation demands. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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The Impact of Video Speed on the Estimation of Time Duration in Sport

Lisa-Marie Schütz, Geoffrey Schweizer, and Henning Plessner

The authors investigated the impact of video speed on judging the duration of sport performance. In three experiments, they investigated whether the speed of video presentation (slow motion vs. real time) has an influence on the accuracy of time estimation of sporting activities (n 1 = 103; n 2 = 100; n 3 = 106). In all three studies, the time estimation was more accurate in real time than in slow motion, in which time was overestimated. In two studies, the authors initially investigated whether actions in slow motion are perceived to last longer because the distance they cycled or ran is perceived to be longer (n 4 = 92; n 5 = 106). The results support the hypothesis that the duration of sporting activities is estimated more accurately when they are presented in real time than in slow motion. Sporting officials’ judgments that require accurate time estimation may thus be biased when based on slow-motion displays.

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Adjusting Identities When Times Change: The Role of Self-Compassion

Sasha M. Kullman, Brittany N. Semenchuk, Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Laura Ceccarelli, and Shaelyn M. Strachan

Adjusting identity standards may be preferable to relentless pursuit or abandonment of an identity when facing an identity-challenging life transition. Self-compassion (SC) can help people adjust to challenges. The authors examined whether SC was associated with identity adjustment, exercise, and the moderating effect of identity–behavior discrepancy in 279 women exercisers who reported reduced exercise in motherhood. Participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale and reported the extent of and reflected on their identity discrepant behavior (reduced exercise). Reactions to discrepancy (acceptance, shame, guilt, and rumination), correlates of identity adjustment (subjective well-being, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and role conflict), and exercise behavior were assessed. SC associated positively with acceptance, correlates of successful identity adjustment, and exercise behavior. SC associated negatively with shame, rumination, and correlates of unsuccessful adjustment. SC may help exercise-identifying women who exercise less after becoming mothers adaptively cope with this identity challenge and continue exercising.

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Examining Neural Activity Related to Pitch Stimuli and Feedback at the Plate: Cognitive and Performance Implications

Jason R. Themanson, Alivia Hay, Lucas Sieving, and Brad E. Sheese

This study investigated the relationships among neural activity related to pitch stimuli and task feedback, self-regulatory control, and task-performance measures in expert and novice baseball players. The participants had their event-related brain potentials recorded while they completed a computerized task assessing whether thrown pitches were balls or strikes and received feedback on the accuracy of their responses following each pitch. The results indicated that college players exhibited significantly larger medial frontal negativities to pitch stimuli, as well as smaller reward positivities and larger frontocentral positivities in response to negative feedback, compared with novices. Furthermore, significant relationships were present between college players’ neural activity related to both pitches and feedback and their task performance and self-regulatory behavior. These relationships were not present for novices. These findings suggest that players efficiently associate the information received in their feedback to their self-regulatory processing of the task and, ultimately, their task performance.

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The Influence of Environmental Constraints in 360° Videos on Decision Making in Soccer

Lisa Musculus, Jurek Bäder, Lukas Sander, and Tobias Vogt

Decision making is an important prerequisite of soccer expertise. Beyond expertise, considering the effects of environmental constraints on decision-making processes could help specify existing theories. To address this gap, expert and nonexpert soccer players were enrolled to test how environmental constraints affect decision-making processes. Environmental constraints were experimentally manipulated: Opponent pressure was implemented by presenting a close opponent player in soccer scenes, time constraint was implemented by providing short time intervals for making the decision, and first-person perspective was implemented by using 360° videos. The experts outperformed the nonexperts, and the results showed significant main effects of time constraint and opponent pressure, but not perspective. The players’ option and decision quality improved under the time constraint but were negatively affected by opponent pressure. The negative effects of opponent pressure were especially true under limited time and in third-person perspective. The results, alternative manipulations, and implications of environmental effects are discussed for decision-making research.