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Burnout in Secondary School Athletic Trainers, Part I: Correlations With Situational Variables

Leslie W. Oglesby, Andrew R. Gallucci, Anna K. Porter, and Ashlyne P. Elliott

Burnout is a psychological syndrome that is found at higher rates in health care professionals, including athletic trainers. Situational variables such as social support, salary, work–family conflict, and workload have been associated with burnout in collegiate athletic trainers. The purpose of this study was to see whether such relationships exist within a sample of secondary school athletic trainers. Analyses suggest that increases in work–family conflict and decreases in social support were significantly correlated with increased burnout in our sample. These findings suggest that modification of work–life balance and support network are more important in combating burnout than modification of workload or salary.

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Reliability and Validity of the Clinometer Smartphone Application for Measuring Knee Flexion

Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Russell T. Baker, Jayme Baker, and Samantha Hanna

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Clinometer smartphone application. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated for devices (i.e., goniometer, Clinometer, bubble inclinometer) using intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer validity were also assessed. Intrarater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficients = .70 − .83) and interrater reliability was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = .63 − .72) across devices. Interinstrument reliability and Clinometer validity were supported across analyses. The Clinometer is comparable to a goniometer or bubble inclinometer for measuring prone knee flexion.

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Continuing Education Assessment

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Volume 27 (2022): Issue 4 (Jul 2022)

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Effects of Plyometric Training on Sonographic Characteristics of Quadriceps Muscle and Patellar Tendon, Quadriceps Strength, and Jump Height in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players

Gulcan Harput, Ugur Toprak, Fatma Filiz Colakoglu, Emirhan Temel, Suzan Saylisoy, and Gul Baltaci

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric training on vastus lateralis (VL) and patellar tendon size, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and vertical jump height in adolescent female volleyball players. Thirty players (age mean ± SD: 15.7 ± 1.1 years) participated in a 6-week Sportsmetrics plyometric training program. VL thickness, echo intensity, and patellar tendon cross-sectional area were assessed by real-time ultrasound. Isokinetic quadriceps strength and vertical jump were assessed. The VL thickness, quadriceps strength, and VJ height increased and VL–echo intensity decreased after training. We recommended that 6-week Sportmetrics plyometric training program may be implemented in adolescent female volleyball programs especially before the beginning of the volleyball season.

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Postoperative Psychological Factors Are Associated With Perceived Improvement Following Hip Arthroscopy

Kate N. Jochimsen, James D. Doorley, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Brian Noehren, Stephen T. Duncan, and Cale A. Jacobs

Psychological factors are receiving increased attention for their role in musculoskeletal health, surgical outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures. This study examined if preoperative and 3-month postoperative pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy differ between patients who report greater versus less than 75% overall improvement from baseline to 3 months after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Of 43 patients, 13 (30.2%) reported <75% improvement 3 months after surgery. Patients who reported <75% improvement had higher pain catastrophizing (p = .04), higher kinesiophobia (p = .02), and lower self-efficacy (p = .007) 3 months after surgery. None of the preoperative psychological factors differed between groups (p ≥ .67). Findings suggest that patients with maladaptive psychological responses 3 months following surgery may also perceive suboptimal surgical improvement.

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Burnout in Secondary School Athletic Trainers, Part II: Correlations With Substance Use

Leslie W. Oglesby, Andrew R. Gallucci, Anna K. Porter, and Ashlyne P. Elliott

Burnout has been associated with increased energy drink consumption and increased occurrence of binge drinking of alcohol in collegiate athletic trainers (ATs), but this has not been examined in ATs in other work settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and use of various substances in secondary school ATs. Statistical analyses found a significant direct relationship between emotional exhaustion and energy drink consumption, but no other findings were statistically significant. These findings suggest that other factors besides burnout are contributing to a high rate of binge drinking of alcohol in secondary school ATs.

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Effectiveness of Augmented Feedback on Drop Landing Using Baseline Vertical Ground Reaction in Female Athletes

Becky Heinert, Drew Rutherford, and Thomas W. Kernozek

Context: Targeted training using augmented feedback to influence landing mechanics may be beneficial to athletes. Purpose: Examine how augmented feedback may influence vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and improve knee valgus in females that display greater VGRF during drop landings. Main Results: Two hundred and forty female athletes participated and were divided into quartiles based on VGRF. Reductions in VGRF and knee valgus were seen across all quartiles with augmented feedback. Greatest reductions were found in the quartile with the largest baseline VGRF. Interpretation: Augmented feedback may be more effective in reducing VGRF and improving knee to ankle ratio in female athletes that have greater baseline VGRF.

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The Test–Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the FitLight Trainer

Lauren R. Myers, Jenny L. Toonstra, and Andrea E. Cripps

Context: Reaction time is an indicator of cognitive function postconcussion and is an important measurement in return-to-play protocols. Current postconcussion assessments lack evidence regarding their reliability and do not simulate functional movement patterns and choice reactions that occur in sport performance. Objective: This study sought to establish the test–retest reliability of the FitLight Trainer in a nonconcussed, healthy population. Methods: Twenty-six healthy individuals from Bowling Green State University participated. Results: Good test–retest reliability was demonstrated for choice reaction time using the FitLight Trainer across the two testing sessions (intraclass correlation coefficient [2, 1] = .80). Conclusions: The FitLight Trainer provides reliable measures of reaction time in a healthy population.

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