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Zoe Yu Shiu, Kim Delbaere, and Kimberley S. van Schooten

Concerns about falling (CAF) affect daily life activities in older people; however, it is unclear whether gender moderates this relationship. The authors investigated the cross-sectional relationship between CAF and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and gait quality in 503 community-dwelling older men and women. About 448 people (age = 76.2 [SD 7.9] years, 296 females) contributed sufficient data on movement intensity, activity duration (bouts of walking, sitting, and standing), number of transitions between activities (sit-to-stand and sit-to-walk), number of steps and gait quality, quantified as walking speed, and sample entropy. Associations with the Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale were tested. The authors found no significant moderation by gender. However, women participated in less PA than men and showed a more irregular walking pattern. Higher levels of CAF led to lower PA and poorer gait quality. Our findings suggest that prevention of CAF-related PA avoidance may be particularly important for women, who are less active and at higher risk of falls.

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Maria Priscila Wermelinger Ávila, Jimilly Caputo Corrêa, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, and Giancarlo Lucchetti

The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the association between resilience and mental health in older adults and to determine the influence of physical activity on this relationship. A total of 291 older adults were included in a 2-year follow-up study. Adjusted linear regression models evaluated the association between resilience at baseline and mental health after 2 years in sufficiently and insufficiently physically active older adults. A negative correlation was found between resilience at baseline and depression, anxiety, and stress after 2 years for the overall sample. This association changed after stratifying the group. Sufficiently physically active individuals made greater use of the resilience components “Self-Sufficiency” and “Perseverance,” whereas insufficiently physically active individuals made greater use of “Meaning of Life” and “Existential Singularity.” Physical activity can influence the relationship between resilience and mental health. These results can help guide the devising of more effective interventions for this age group.

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Heather A. McKay, Lindsay Nettlefold, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather M. Macdonald, Karim M. Khan, and Adrian Bauman

Background: Choose to Move is one of few scaled-up health-promoting interventions for older adults. The authors evaluated whether Choose to Move participants maintained their intervention-related gains in physical activity (PA), mobility, and social connectedness 12 months after the intervention ended. Methods: The authors assessed PA, mobility, loneliness, social isolation, and muscle strength via questionnaire and objective measures in 235 older adults at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of intervention), and 18 months (12-months postintervention). The authors fitted linear mixed models to examine the change in each outcome from 6 to 18 months (primary objective) and 0 to 18 months (secondary objective) and reported by age group (60–74 and ≥75 y). Results: In younger participants, PA decreased between 6 and 18 months, but remained significantly higher than at baseline. Intervention-related benefits in loneliness, social isolation, mobility, and muscle strength were maintained between 6 and 18 months in the younger participants. Older participants maintained their intervention benefits in loneliness, mobility, and muscle strength. When compared with baseline values, PA levels in older participants were unchanged, whereas social isolation increased. Conclusions: Older adults maintained some, but not all, health benefits of Choose to Move 12 months after the intervention ended. Long-term commitments are needed to deliver effective health-promoting interventions for older adults if benefits are to be maintained.

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Gengyu Han, Jingshu Zhang, Shang Ma, Ruoran Lu, Jiali Duan, Yi Song, and Patrick W.C. Lau

Background: Given the widespread prevalence and serious nature of Internet addiction (IA), this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of IA and assess the relationships between IA and combinations of physical activity (PA) and screen-based sedentary behavior (SB) among adolescents in China. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 31,954 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in Beijing. IA, PA, screen-based SB, and other information were obtained from a self-administrated questionnaire. The chi-square test and mixed-effects logistic regression model were applied to estimate the relationship between IA and combinations of PA and screen-based SB. Results: 6.2% of the surveyed adolescents reported IA and the prevalence of low PA/high screen-based SB, high PA/high screen-based SB, low PA/low screen-based SB, and high PA/low screen-based SB were 53.7%, 19.5%, 18.8%, and 8.0%, respectively. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with low PA/high screen-based SB were 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.62–2.44, P < .001) times more likely to prefer IA than those with high PA/low screen-based SB. Conclusions: The prevalence of IA among Chinese adolescents is still high. Intervention programs like maintaining sufficient PA and reducing screen-based SB might contribute to reducing their IA.

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Leah M. Schumacher, J. Graham Thomas, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Dale S. Bond

Background: Exercising at a consistent versus variable time of day cross-sectionally relates to greater moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among weight loss maintainers. This study evaluated the relationships between exercise timing and both MVPA levels and habit strength, as well as stability in exercise timing, over 1 year among maintainers in the National Weight Control Registry. Methods: Participants (n = 709) completed questionnaires assessing exercise timing, MVPA, and exercise automaticity (a measure of habit) at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At each assessment, participants were labeled temporally consistent exercisers if >50% of their exercise sessions per week occurred in one time window: early morning, late morning, afternoon, or evening. Participants exercising consistently during the same window at both assessments were labeled as having stable patterns. Results: Temporally consistent exercise at baseline, regardless of its specific time, related to greater MVPA over time (Ps< .05). Approximately half of temporally consistent exercisers at baseline exhibited stable patterns. Early morning exercise and greater exercise automaticity at baseline predicted stable patterns (Ps< .005). Temporally consistent exercise, especially during the early morning, related to greater automaticity across time (Ps< .01). Conclusions: Consistent exercise timing may help maintainers accrue more MVPA. Consistent early morning exercise was most strongly related to exercise automaticity and routine stability.

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Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Rod Walker, John Bellettiere, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Boeun Kim, David Wing, KatieRose Richmire, Paul K. Crane, Eric B. Larson, and Dori E. Rosenberg

Neighborhood walkability has been associated with self-reported sedentary behavior (SB) and self-reported and objective physical activity. However, self-reported measures of SB are inaccurate and can lead to biased estimates, and few studies have examined how associations differ by gender and age. The authors examined the relationships between perceived neighborhood walkability measured with the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (scored 1.0–4.0) and device-based SB and physical activity in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,077). The authors fit linear regression models adjusting for device wear time, demographics, self-rated health, and accounting for probability of participation. The Higher Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale was associated with higher steps (+676 steps/point on the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale, p = .001) and sit-to-stand transitions (+2.4 transitions/point, p = .018). Though not statistically significant, stratified analyses suggest an attenuation of effect for those aged 85 years and older and for women. Consistent with previous literature, neighborhood walkability was associated with more steps, though not with physical activity time. The neighborhood environment may also influence SB.

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Giovana Z. Mazo, Felipe Fank, Pedro S. Franco, Bruna da Silva Vieira Capanema, and Franciele da Silva Pereira

The objective was to analyze the impact of social isolation on moderate physical activity and factors associated with sedentary behavior of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study involving 111 older adults (aged 71.0 ± 6.87 years). The data were collected at two time points: in November 2019 and in June 2020. There was a decline in moderate physical activity when the minutes/week were compared before and during social isolation (p < .001). Sedentary behavior was associated with the condition of living alone. Older adults who lived alone were 3.29 times more likely to spend 4 hr or more in sedentary behavior than those who lived with a partner (95% confidence interval [1.01, 10.74]). Government agencies must establish PA-related health promotion strategies, especially in developing and low-income countries. Therefore, home exercises need to be encouraged to prevent the consequences of this pandemic period.

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Ming Ding, Hui Ouyang, Caiyun Zhang, Lijun Jiang, Runsen Zhuang, Xiaomei Dong, Xiongfei Chen, Hongmei Yang, and Qian Tao

Leisure activities, particularly physically and cognitively stimulating leisure activities, mitigate cognitive decline. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between mahjong playing, leisure physical activity, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Older adults with and without MCI were recruited (n = 489, healthy group; and n = 187, MCI group). The regression results showed that years of mahjong playing (odds ratio = 0.595, 95% confidence interval [0.376, 0.961], p = .032) and physical activity (odds ratio = 0.572, 95% confidence interval [0.381, 0.849], p = .012) were associated with reduced odds of having MCI after adjusting for a series of covariates. Leisure physical activity and mahjong playing interacted with each other and produced combined effects on the odds of having MCI. Combined cognitive and physical interventions may produce larger benefits on cognition than either intervention alone.

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Harshvardhan Singh, Bethany A. Moore, Roshita Rathore, Michael G. Bemben, and Debra A. Bemben

The authors examined sex-specific relationships between fat mass index (FMI), android/gynoid (A/G) fat ratio, relative skeletal muscle mass index, and Bone-Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire derived bone-loading scores (BLSs) in middle-aged and older adults (men, n = 27; women, n = 33; age = 55–75 years). The FMI, A/G fat ratio, and relative skeletal muscle mass index were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Bone-Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess: (a) BLSpast (age 1 until 12 months before the study visit), (b) BLScurrent (last 12 months), and (c) BLStotal (average of [a] and [b]) scores. Separate multiple linear regression analysis of (a) age, FMI, and relative skeletal muscle mass index and (b) age, height, and A/G fat ratio versus BLS revealed that FMI and A/G fat ratio were negatively associated with BLSpast and BLStotal (p < .05) in women only. Adiposity and, specifically, central adiposity is negatively related to bone-loading physical activity in middle-aged and older women.

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Victoria S. Davila, David E. Conroy, and Margaret K. Danilovich

Walking interventions improve health outcomes among older adults. However, few clinical trials evaluate long-term behavior change adherence. The authors explored factors that influence walking adherence in older adults following their participation in a clinical trial. They conducted n = 7 focus groups with n = 23 participants enrolled in the parent study (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03654807). The authors used content analysis to code data according to the social–ecological model. They found that supportive services (exercise classes) in retirement communities have multilevel impacts on adherence to walking activity. Residents from communities offering services continued walking because of increased confidence gained in the parent trial, while residents in communities without services were motivated by their functional improvements. Residents voiced frustration with retirement community physical activity programs that did not address the full spectrum of physical functioning. Findings support the need for retirement communities to account for various motivational factors in tailoring programs to promote increased physical activity for older adults.