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Erratum: Rogers et al. (2021)

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Evening Whey Protein Intake, Rich in Tryptophan, and Sleep in Elite Male Australian Rules Football Players on Training and Nontraining Days

Cassandra Ferguson, Brad Aisbett, Michele Lastella, Spencer Roberts, and Dominique Condo

Objectives: To investigate the effect of evening whey protein supplementation, rich in tryptophan, on sleep in elite male Australian Rules Football players. Design: Double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized, cross-over study. Methods: Sleep was assessed using wrist activity monitors and sleep diaries in 15 elite male Australian Football League players on two training and nontraining days following evening consumption of an isocaloric whey protein supplement or placebo in preseason. A 5-day preintervention period was implemented to determine habitual dietary intake and baseline sleep measures. These habitual data were used to inform the daily dietary intake and timing of ingestion of the evening whey protein supplement or placebo on the intervention days. The whey protein supplement or placebo was consumed 3 hr prior to habitual bedtime. Results: Separate one-way repeated-measures analyses of covariance revealed no differences between the whey protein supplement and the placebo on sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, or wake after sleep onset on either training or nontraining days. Conclusions: Evening whey protein supplementation, rich in tryptophan, does not improve acute sleep duration or quality in elite male Australian Football League players. However, elite athletes may be able to ingest a high protein/energy intake close to bedtime without impairing sleep, which is important for athlete recovery. Future research should investigate the effect of evening protein intake, high in tryptophan, on sleep duration and quality, including sleep staging during periods of restricted sleep and in poor-sleeping athletes.

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The Hyperhydration Potential of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Citrate

Jason C. Siegler, Amelia J. Carr, William T. Jardine, Lilia Convit, Rebecca Cross, Dale Chapman, Louise M. Burke, and Megan Ross

Buffering agents have not been comprehensively profiled in terms of their capacity to influence water retention prior to exercise. The purpose of this investigation was to profile the fluid retention characteristics of sodium bicarbonate (BIC) and sodium citrate (CIT) to determine the efficacy of these buffering mediums as hyperhydrating agents. Nineteen volunteers (13 males and six females; age = 28.3 ± 4.9 years) completed three trials (randomized and cross-over design). For each trial, a baseline measurement of body mass, capillary blood, and urine was collected prior to ingestion of their respective condition (control condition [CON] = 25 ml/kg artificially sweetened water; BIC condition = CON + 7.5 g/L of sodium in the form of BIC; CIT condition = CON + 7.5 g/L of sodium in the form of CIT). The fluid loads were consumed in four equal aliquots (0, 20, 40 and 60 min; fluid intake was 1.972 ± 361 ml [CON]; 1.977 ± 360 ml [BIC]; 1.953 ± 352 ml [CIT]). Samples were recorded at 20 (body mass and urine) and 60 min (blood) intervals for 180 min. Blood buffering capacity (HCO3 ) was elevated (p < .001) in both BIC (32.1 ± 2.2 mmol/L) and CIT (28.9 ± 3.8 mmol/L) at 180 min compared with CON (25.1 ± 1.8 mmol/L). Plasma volume expansion was greater (p < .001) in both BIC (8.1 ± 1.3%) and CIT (5.9 ± 1.8%) compared with CON (−1.1 ± 1.4%); whereas, total urine production was lower in BIC and CIT at 180 min (BIC vs. CON, mean difference of 370 ± 85 ml; p < .001; CIT vs. CON, mean difference of 239 ± 102 ml; p = .05). There were no increases observed in body mass (p = .9). Under resting conditions, these data suggest BIC and CIT induce a greater plasma hypervolemic response as compared with water alone.

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Impact of Physical Activity Intensity Levels on the Cardiometabolic Risk Status of Children: The Genobox Study

Francisco J. Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco J. Aguilar-Gómez, Gloria Bueno-Lozano, Augusto Anguita-Ruiz, Azahara I. Rupérez, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Katherine Flores-Rojas, Concepción M. Aguilera, Luis A. Moreno, Ángel Gil, Rosaura Leis, and Mercedes Gil-Campos

Childhood obesity has been related to metabolic syndrome and low-grade chronic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of physical activity intensities and practice on inflammation, endothelial damage, and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. There were 513 participants, aged 6–14 years, recruited for the study. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, and the children were classified into four groups according to quartiles of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) practice as very low active, low active, moderate active, and high active. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and plasma metabolic and proinflammatory parameters were analyzed. Very low active group presented a worse lipid profile and higher insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, while lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Type 1 macrophages, and interleukin 8 than high-active children. Regression analyses showed that a higher MVPA practice was associated with lower levels of triacylglycerols (β: −0.118; p = .008), resistin (β: −0.151; p = .005), tPAI (β: −0.105; p = .046), and P-selectin (β: −0.160; p = .006), independently of sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). In contrast, a higher BMI was associated with higher levels of insulin (β: 0.370; p < .001), Homeostasis Model Assessment (β: 0.352; p < .001), triacylglycerols (β: 0.209; p < .001), leptin (β: 0.654; p < .001), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (β: 0.182; p < .001), Type 1macrophages (β: 0.181; p < .001), and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (β: 0.240; p < .001), independently of sex, age, and MVPA. A better anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory profile was detected in the most active children; however, these differences were partly due to BMI. These results suggest that a higher MVPA practice and a lower BMI in children may lead to a better cardiometabolic status.

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What’s New for Twenty-Two?

James A. Betts

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Collagen and Vitamin C Supplementation Increases Lower Limb Rate of Force Development

Dana M. Lis, Matthew Jordan, Timothy Lipuma, Tayler Smith, Karine Schaal, and Keith Baar

Background: Exercise and vitamin C-enriched collagen supplementation increase collagen synthesis, potentially increasing matrix density, stiffness, and force transfer. Purpose: To determine whether vitamin C-enriched collagen (hydrolyzed collagen [HC] + C) supplementation improves rate of force development (RFD) alongside a strength training program. Methods: Using a double-blinded parallel design, over 3 weeks, healthy male athletes (n = 50, 18–25 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (HC + C; 20 g HC + 50 mg vitamin C) or placebo (20 g maltodextrin). Supplements were ingested daily 60 min prior to training. Athletes completed the same targeted maximal muscle power training program. Maximal isometric squats, countermovement jumps, and squat jumps were performed on a force plate at the same time each testing day (baseline, Tests 1, 2, and 3) to measure RFD and maximal force development. Mixed-model analysis of variance compared performance variables across the study timeline, whereas tests were used to compare the change between baseline and Test 3. Results: Over 3 weeks, maximal RFD in the HC + C group returned to baseline, whereas the placebo group remained depressed (p = .18). While both groups showed a decrease in RFD through Test 2, only the treatment group recovered RFD to baseline by Test 3 (p = .036). In the HC + C group, change in countermovement jumps eccentric deceleration impulse (p = .008) and eccentric deceleration RFD (p = .04) was improved. A strong trend was observed for lower limb stiffness assessed in the countermovement jumps (p = .08). No difference was observed in maximal force or squat jump parameters. Conclusion: The HC + C supplementation improved RFD in the squat and countermovement jump alongside training.

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Combination of Aerobic Training and Cocoa Flavanols as Effective Therapies to Reduce Metabolic and Inflammatory Disruptions in Insulin-Resistant Rats: The Exercise, Cocoa, and Diabetes Study

Bruno P. Melo, Aline C. Zacarias, Joyce C.C. Oliveira, Letícia M. De Souza Cordeiro, Samuel P. Wanner, Mara L. Dos Santos, Gleide F. Avelar, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman, and Danusa D. Soares

We aimed to investigate the combined effects of aerobic exercise (EXE) and cocoa flavanol (COCOA) supplementation on performance, metabolic parameters, and inflammatory and lipid profiles in obese insulin-resistant rats. Therefore, 32 male Wistar rats (230–250 g) were fed a high-fat diet and a fructose-rich beverage for 30 days to induce insulin resistance. Next, the rats were randomized into four groups, orally administered placebo solution or COCOA supplementation (45 mg·kg−1), and either remained sedentary or were subjected to EXE on a treadmill at 60% peak velocity for 30 min, for 8 weeks. Blood samples and peripheral tissues were collected and processed to analyze metabolic and inflammatory parameters, lipid profiles, and morphological parameters. Supplementation with COCOA and EXE improved physical performance and attenuated body mass gain, adipose index, and adipocyte area. When analyzed as individual interventions, supplementation with COCOA and EXE improved glucose intolerance and the lipid profile reduced the concentrations of leptin, glucose, and insulin, and reduced homeostasis assessment index (all effects were p < .001 for both interventions), while ameliorated some inflammatory mediators in examined tissues. In skeletal muscles, both COCOA supplementation and EXE increased the expression of glucose transporter (p < .001 and p < .001), and combined intervention showed additive effects (p < .001 vs. COCOA alone or EXE alone). Thus, combining COCOA with EXE represents an effective nonpharmacological strategy to treat insulin resistance; it could prevent Type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving physical performance, glucose metabolism, neuroendocrine control, and lipid and inflammatory mediators in the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in obese male insulin-resistant rats.

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Acknowledgments

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Short-Term Stability of Urine Electrolytes: Effect of Time and Storage Conditions

J.D. Adams, Miranda Badolato, Ethan Pierce, Abbie Cantrell, Zac Parker, and Donya Farzam

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature and duration on the assessment of urine electrolytes. Twenty-one separate human urine specimens were analyzed as baseline and with the remaining specimen separated into eight vials, two in each of the following four temperatures: 22, 7, −20, and −80 °C. Each specimen was analyzed for urine electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) after 24 and 48 hr. After 24 hr, no significant difference was detected from baseline in urine sodium, potassium, and chloride at all four storage temperatures (p > .05). Similarly, after 48 hr, urine sodium, potassium, and chloride were not significantly different from baseline in all four storage temperatures (p > .05). In conclusion, these data show that urine specimens analyzed for urine sodium, chloride, and potassium are stable up to 48 hr in temperatures ranging from deep freezing to room temperature.

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Volume 31 (2021): Issue 6 (Nov 2021)