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A Comparison of Motivation and Physical Activity Levels Between a Sport Education Season and a Hybrid Sport Education and Cooperative Learning Season

Irene Rocamora, Ashley Casey, Sixto González-Víllora, and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

Purpose: To understand how a season of sport education (SE) and a hybrid SE and cooperative learning season impacted on elementary school students’ physical activity levels and motivation and to examine possible differences according to gender. Method: A total of 97 fourth- to fifth-grade students in four intact classes participated in a 14-lesson handball season. Results: Students in SE had higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels than the hybrid season. When sorted by gender, boys were significantly more active than girls in both interventions. However, students in the hybrid season reported higher levels of motivation than participants in the SE season, especially for intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: The hybridization of models positively affected students’ motivation in PE, while the reverse is true of SE with regard to physical activity levels.

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Effects of an Environmental Intervention on High School Students’ Expanded Physical Activity Programming Participation and Activity Levels

Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Jaimie McMullen, Jason Norris, and Julie Jahn

Partial Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming (CSPAP) has been studied extensively in recent years. However, there is little evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of such interventions in high school settings. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs have been slow in preparing future physical educators for CSPAP implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PETE interns implementing a partial CSPAP intervention in high schools. Methods: Data were collected at three high schools during before- and during-school time periods using a direct observation instrument. The intervention consisted of PETE interns providing access to physical activity areas, equipment, and supervision with assistance from the schools’ resident teachers. A hybrid multiple baseline research design was used to assess the effects of the intervention on high school students’ participation and moderate to vigorous physical activity levels during the partial CSPAP sessions. Data were analyzed using both standard visual analysis of graphically plotted data and supplementary statistical treatments. Data were deemed credible based on interobserver agreement data collected across experimental phases and schools; the data were deemed trustworthy. Results: Experimental control was established as the total number of students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity during the partial CSPAP sessions increased substantially upon the start of the intervention. Compared with girls, boys demonstrated higher amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Discussion/Conclusion: High school students respond similarly to a partial CSPAP intervention as do elementary and middle school-aged students, thereby strengthening the generalization of CSPAP-type interventions. Moreover, PETE interns can be successful in implementing a partial CSPAP in high school settings.

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Let Us Debate! A Proposal to Promote Social Entrepreneurship in Physical Education Teacher Education

Carlos Capella-Peris, Oscar Chiva-Bartoll, Celina Salvador-Garcia, and María Maravé-Vivas

Purpose: To analyze the effects of debates on social entrepreneurship (SE) in physical education teacher education students (n = 38) from an urban university. Participants discussed the role that society, social class, gender, race, and violence play in sports. Method: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design with methodological triangulation was employed: QUAN + QUAL. Results: The quantitative results provide evidence regarding the positive effect of debates on SE. The qualitative analysis complements this outcome by describing how SE was developed, for example, facing a new teaching methodology, being challenged by peers and/or the teacher, analyzing different opinions and their implications, developing new arguments for discussion, discussing topics according to the students’ interests, and leading the conversation while debating. Data transformation and sentiment analyses provide supplemental information regarding the benefits provided. Discussion/Conclusion: Our results display how debates improve SE in physical education teacher education students, calling for new research in this direction.

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The Impact of Pandemic Lockdowns and Remote Learning on Student Fitness: An Investigation of Changes to High School Student Fitness Levels

Ryan Nolan and Matthew D. Zbaracki

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on health-related fitness resulting from COVID-19 lockdowns on male high school students in Melbourne, Australia. Method: A total of 146 students completed fitness testing in February and retesting in November following 7 months of remote learning. Fitness tests conducted were 20-m shuttle run (Beep Test), flexed arm hang, body mass index, push-ups, sit-ups, and sit and reach. Results: The mean fitness levels of this cohort decreased across the health-related fitness components. Decreases were varying in magnitude, body composition (d = 0.3), flexibility (d = 0.56), muscular strength (d = 0.64), muscular endurance (d = 0.39 and d = 0.26), and cardiovascular endurance (d = 0.96). Discussion: The impact on students’ fitness levels was noteworthy, and the long-term impacts of this decrease are yet to be seen. This research brings focus to what can be done to maintain adolescent fitness when their usual exercise opportunities are not available.

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Exploring the Effects of a Context Personalization Approach in Physical Education on Students’ Interests and Perceived Competence

Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

Purpose: The context personalization approach refers to matching educational content with characters, objects, and themes of students’ out-of-school interests. Considering the positive effects of individual interest on the regulation of student-in-context experiences, this study used the context personalization approach to match physical education (PE) lessons with students’ out-of-school interest for video games. The purpose was to explore the effects of a context personalization approach through a gamified PE unit on students’ interests and perceived competence. Method: One hundred and eighty-four students from eight PE classes were allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. All classes experienced a handball unit (six lessons), inspired by the Games-Centered Approach. The only difference between the experimental classes (N = 5) and the control classes (N = 3) was the presence or the absence of a context personalization approach centered on students’ out-of-school interest for video games. The effects were assessed on three outcomes variables: students’ individual interest, situational interest, and perceived competence. Results: The gamified PE unit resulted in positive effects on students’ individual interest, situational interest, and perceived competence in handball, since the experimental classes reported higher scores for all variables compared to the control classes. However, the effects on students’ situational interest were principally moderated by students’ individual interest, indicating that the effect of the context personalization approach was higher for the students having low preintervention individual interest. Discussion/Conclusion: Using a context personalization approach based on a gamified unit is a promising strategy in PE to impact students’ interests and perceived competence.

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Portuguese Students’ Perceptions About the Motivational Climate in Physical Education

Paulo Pereira, Fernando Santos, and Daniel A. Marinho

Purpose: To validate the English version of the L’Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational within a Portuguese context and analyze students’ perceptions of the motivational climate in physical education and its relationship to demographic variables, participation in extracurricular sports, and students’ grades. Methods: A total of 476 Portuguese students participated in the study and completed the L’Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational (249 men = 52.3%; 227 women = 47.7%). Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the importance of motivational climate in physical education classes. Results: Our results suggest that the Portuguese version of the L’Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational is valid and reliable. Furthermore, motivational climate is a predictor of both extracurricular sports participation and grades. Discussion and Conclusion: The finding that motivational climate is a predictor for extracurricular sports participation and grades supports the relevance of the climate fostered by physical education teachers and its influence on learning. This study discusses implications for research and practice.

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Gender Differences and Inequality? A 20-Year Retrospective Analysis Based on 39,980 Students’ Perceptions of Physical Education in Sweden

Alexander Jansson, Gunilla Brun Sundblad, Suzanne Lundvall, Daniel Bjärsholm, and Johan R. Norberg

Purpose: The aim of this study was to critically examine previous studies’ claims about the magnitude of gender differences and gender inequality in physical education (PE) in Sweden. Method: The data were based on students’ (N = 39,980) perceptions of PE and were gathered from four large research projects in Sweden. Three effect size measures (Cramer’s V, r squared, and Cohen’s d) were calculated for gender differences. Results: In general, there are small gender differences; and after controlling for students’ grade, “sports capital,” and parents’ “educational capital,” the differences are practically irrelevant. Conclusion: This study provides compelling evidence that there are small, or even irrelevant, gender differences in students’ perceptions of PE in Sweden. Moreover, given that previous research asserts that large gender differences can be used as an indicator of inequality, this study suggests that gender inequality issues related to students’ perceptions of PE are relatively small.

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Volume 41 (2022): Issue 3 (Jul 2022)

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The Role of the Type of Sport in the Effects of the Jigsaw Method on Students’ Motivation and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Physical Education

Océane Cochon Drouet, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Cédric Roure, and Nicolas Margas

Purpose: Jigsaw is a popular cooperative method, but its effect on students’ motivation in physical education (PE) remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to estimate this Jigsaw effect and to explore whether the type of sport taught in PE modified this effect. Method: Overall, 136 middle-school students participated in two PE sequences in Jigsaw or control conditions, one in gymnastics and one in racket sports. These two types of sports were selected because they are frequently taught in PE and for their opposing characteristics. Students’ motivation was estimated during the third and sixth lessons of each sequence with a subjective measure, that is, situational interest; moderate to vigorous physical activity was added as an objective measure related to motivation. Results: Compared to control conditions, Jigsaw progressively enhanced moderate to vigorous physical activity and the novelty dimension of situational interest in gymnastics, whereas it undermined moderate to vigorous physical activity and the challenge dimension of situational interest in rackets. Discussion: We discuss the decisive role of the type of sport according to their characteristics when implementing Jigsaw.

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Evaluating the Content Knowledge of Preservice Physical Education Teachers

Phillip Ward, Won Seok Chey, and Kyuil Cho

Purpose: We examined the variables of common content knowledge, specialized content knowledge, and performance that preservice teachers had acquired from their K–12 physical education and extracurricular experiences and the effects of a content course on improving their content knowledge and performance. Method: Nineteen preservice teachers were assessed during a half a semester long content course using pre- and posttests of common content knowledge, soccer performance, and two specialized content knowledge variables: instructional tasks and error analysis. Relationships between experience in playing and coaching for each assessment were conducted. Data are reported descriptively and inferentially. Results: Preservice teachers had poor pretest scores on all variables except performance. Posttest scores following the content class showed substantive, highly significant relationships with large effect sizes. Yet, the levels obtained were less than desirable for all common content knowledge and specialized content knowledge variables, except performance. A number of relationships were found between experience and the measures. Discussion/Conclusion: Our results suggest that more research needs to be conducted on the design of content courses in physical education teacher education.