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“STAR WARS™: The First Jedi” Gamification Program: Improvement of Fitness Among College Students

Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Carmen Navarro-Mateos, and Isaac J. Pérez-López

Purpose: To examine the effects of a 14-week gamification-based physical education teaching program on fitness in college students. Method: A convenience sample of 112 college students (21.22 ± 2.55 years) was distributed among a gamification-based group or a control group (i.e., traditional teaching). College students from the gamification group used a game-based mobile app under the narrative of “STAR WARS™” with a countdown, so they had to gain lifetime. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Muscular fitness was measured by the handgrip strength and the standing broad jump tests. Results: Participants from the gamification program reported a significantly higher cardiorespiratory fitness and upper and lower body muscular fitness at postintervention, indicated by an effect size of 0.86 (p < .001), 0.18 (p = .018), and 0.52 (p < .001), respectively. Conclusion: Gamification can have an important implication on students’ motivation toward higher fitness.

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What Kind of Interpersonal Need-Supportive or Need-Thwarting Teaching Style Is More Associated With Positive Consequences in Physical Education?

Francisco M. Leo, Behzad Behzadnia, Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Marco Batista, and Juan J. Pulido

Purpose: Based on a multilevel approach (individual and class level), this study aimed to test which need-supportive/thwarting teaching styles were more closely associated with students’ motivation and other positive physical education (PE) out-of-school consequences. Method: Participants were 654 primary (n = 385) and secondary (n = 269) PE students (M age = 11.96 ± 1.95; boys = 317 and girls = 337). Results: The three need-supportive teaching behaviors were related to autonomous motivation, PE importance and usefulness, and the intentions to practice physical activity at the individual level; the role of competence support at both individual and class levels is highlighted. Competence-thwarting style was also negatively related to autonomous motivation at both levels, and jointly to relatedness-thwarting behaviors positively to a motivation at the individual level. Conclusion: Our results provide insight into how the specific type of interpersonal styles adopted by teachers can be decisive to achieve positive PE outcomes in and out of school.

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The Impact of Sport Education on Physical Education Majors’ Basketball Content Knowledge and Performance

Hairui Liu, Wei Shen, Anyi Hu, Wei Wang, Wei Li, and Peter A. Hastie

Purpose: To examine the consistency of findings between two studies examining the impact of sport education on Chinese physical education preservice teachers’ content knowledge and performance of volleyball and basketball. Methods: One hundred and six preservice teachers’ from a university in central China participated in six semester-long courses of basketball taught using either a Multi-Activity or Sport Education model of instruction. Pre- and postcourse measures of game performance were recorded for common content knowledge and specialized content knowledge. Results: After controlling for preintervention scores, statistically significant differences favoring Sport Education were found for common content knowledge as well as specialized content knowledge. Students in Sport Education had 62 times higher odds of reaching the specialized content knowledge benchmark depth for acceptable content development. Conclusion: These findings provide support for the idea that the accountability mechanisms specific to Sport Education, together with the tasks related to designing team training plans, serve to promote students’ ability to design and sequence tasks based on their team’s needs.

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Faculty Perspectives Using Practice-Based Teacher Education in Physical Education

Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, Xiuye Xie, Emi Tsuda, José A. Santiago, Peter Iserbyt, and Erhan Devrilmez

Purpose: Practice-based teacher education (PBTE) has been proposed as an approach to combat forms of teacher education that create prescriptive understandings of teaching that are disconnected from practice. In physical education, PBTE is becoming more prevalent. Some have argued that many of its elements have been in use for some time, whereas other elements have been refined or are new. In this study, we were motivated to examine the use of PBTE by physical education teacher educators and their perceptions of PBTE. Method: Participants were nine teacher educators from the United States (n = 6), Turkey (n = 2), and Belgium (n = 1). Surveys were used to gather data on the use of PBTE and the perceptions of teacher educators. Data describing the use of PBTE in their programs were descriptively analyzed. Our perceptions were interpreted using an intrinsic case study with PBTE serving as the case. Findings: Programs adopted similar and different elements of PBTE. Four themes emerged relative to the perceptions of teacher educators about PBTE: (a) how the context of the teacher educator influences their use of PBTE, (b) teacher educators’ use of PBTE, (c) the advantages of using PBTE, and (d) a critical analysis of PBTE. Conclusion: Our approach to operationalizing PBTE may help encourage useful conversations in physical education teacher education.

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Sportspersonship Under Review: An Examination of Fair Play Attitudes Through the Contextualized Sport Alphabetization Model in Primary Physical Education

Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz, Sixto González-Víllora, and Javier Fernandez-Rio

Purpose : The goal was twofold: (a) to analyze the evolution of sportspersonship attitudes and negative values along a learning unit using the contextualized sport alphabetization model and (b) to determine the associations between sportspersonship and self-determined motivation. Method : The study followed a preexperimental, cross-sectional design with pre-, mid-, and posttesting. Forty-one primary education students (10.17 ± 1.13 years) participated in a futsal-based unit using the contextualized sport alphabetization model. Data were analyzed through a set of Grade (4) × Time (3) repeated-measures analysis of variances. In addition, Pearson moment–product correlational analysis was conducted to observe any possible associations between sportspersonship and motivation. Results : Findings showed a positive significant evolution, as well as a positive relationship, between sportspersonship and self-determined motivation. Results also showed significant differences among grades. Discussion/Conclusion : This study provides empirical support for the implementation of the contextualized sport alphabetization model, encompassed within a learner-centered teaching practice, to promote positive values among students in physical education.

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The Impact of a Nonlinear Pedagogical Approach to Primary School Physical Education Upon Children’s Movement Skill Competence

Daniel M. Cooke, Craig B. Harrison, Sarah-Kate Millar, and Simon Walters

Purpose: To investigate the effects of a nonlinear pedagogical approach to primary school physical education (PE) upon children’s movement skill competence. Methods: Forty-six (male = 25 and female = 21) children aged 6–9 years participated in either a nonlinear pedagogy (NP) or linear pedagogy approach to PE for 9 weeks. Children’s movement skill competence was assessed utilizing measures representative of children’s play at pretest, posttest, and 13-week retention test time points. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant improvements for general motor coordination (p < .05, d = 0.234) and time-to-contact judgment performance (p < .05) for the NP group only. Significant between-group differences existed for general motor coordination at the retention test time point (p < .05, d = 0.119) in favor of the NP group. Conclusion: Our results reveal that NP approaches to primary school PE can be efficacious in enhancing children’s movement skill competence. Thus, it seems appropriate that NP approaches to PE are utilized more readily within the primary school sector.

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A Practical Approach to Negotiating Authorship and Preparing Manuscripts for Publication

Kevin Andrew Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Sara B. Flory

The academic publishing process is fraught with challenges, inconsistencies, and the absence of clearly articulated guidelines and recommendations, particularly for doctoral students and other newcomers. Our goal is to overview key information that authors may consider and decisions they will need to make when determining authorship and preparing manuscripts for submission. Specifically, we discuss how authors can consider (a) the ongoing discussion of authorship, (b) identifying a target journal, and (c) submitting a manuscript for review. We draw influence from how processes are conducted relative to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education in approaching our commentary as a point of reference. Nevertheless, while acknowledging differences in journal style and submission formats, many of the considerations discussed are relevant across publication outlets. Common threads across the discussion impress the importance of being intentional, proactive, and adaptive when engaging in authorship conversations and identifying target journals for submission.

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Teacher and Student’s Perspectives on Their Experiences Within Hybrid Sport Education-Cooperative Learning Pedagogical Model Units in Elementary Physical Education

Alexander Gil-Arias, Stephen Harvey, Óscar M. Morante, Fernando Claver, and Javier Fernández-Río

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher and students’ perspectives on their experiences within three consecutive hybrid sport education and cooperative learning pedagogical model units. Method: Fifty elementary school students (M age = 10.52; SD age = 0.39) and a 36-year-old male teacher participated in three consecutive hybrid cooperative learning/sport education units (24 lessons). Semistructured interviews were conducted to gather data and gain a rich, insiders’ perspective of their experiences. Results: Three main themes (including several subthemes) were generated from the data analysis: students’ enthusiasm and involvement (autonomy support, motivation, and engagement); students’ learning (technical–tactical learning, cooperative skills, and social learning); and teacher challenges. Conclusions: Findings from the current study showed that a teacher’s use of three consecutive hybrid sport education/cooperative learning pedagogical model units promoted a learning environment where students were involved in authentic sport experiences that fostered the development of students’ learning across all domains.

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Physical Education Teachers’ Experiences of Nurturing a Community of Practice Online

Heidi J. Ferreira, Luiza Gonçalves, and Melissa Parker

Purpose: Drawing on the concept of community of practice, the purpose of this study was to explore Brazilian physical education teachers’ experiences of nurturing a community of practice online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This was an action research project, and the participants were 13 high school physical education teachers (one of them acted as teacher-facilitator), one critical friend, and one meta-critical friend. Data sources included teachers’ online meetings, critical friend conversations, interviews, and the facilitator’s reflexive journal. Results: Inductive analysis resulted in four themes: finding emotional and pedagogical support, building a teachers-only space, creating an online group dynamic, and negotiating to research their own practice. The findings are discussed in relation to the characteristics of community of practices and online continuing professional development. Conclusion: Key aspects for future online collaborative continuing professional development are highlighted: (a) teachers-only; (b) by teachers, for teachers; and (c) combination of tools.

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Practice-Based Teacher Education in Physical Education

Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Erhan Devrilmez, Peter Iserbyt, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, José A. Santiago, Emi Tsuda, and Xiuye Xie

Background: Teacher education is a complex endeavor designed to prepare preservice teachers for the task of teaching physical education to students in K–12 schools. Yet, there is widespread criticism of teacher education outcomes within the United States and around the world. Consequently, teacher educators have been increasingly called upon to use evidence-based approaches in teacher education. Purpose: In this article, we discuss a teacher education reform called practice-based teacher education from macro and micro perspectives. Discussion: Practice-based teacher education emphasizes a curriculum that is focused on relevance defined in terms of what a teacher needs to know and do to be able to teach physical education. Evidence for curricular changes to physical education teacher education and to the content and pedagogies of methods and content classes are presented. We conclude with a discussion of how practice-based teacher education can address social injustice.