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Erratum: Liu et al. (2021)

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State and Trait Fatigue and Energy Predictors of Postural Control and Gait

Katie L. Kowalski, Ali Boolani, and Anita D. Christie

Compromised attentional resources during perceived fatigue has been suggested to alter motor control. The authors determined if measures of postural control and gait are predicted by state and trait physical and mental fatigue and energy, and how these relationships are modified by sex, sleep quality, and physical activity. Young adults (n = 119) completed the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration, overground walking, and questionnaires to quantify fatigue and energy, sleep quality, and physical activity. Regression models indicated that trait fatigue, trait energy, and sleep quality were predictors of postural control (p ≤ .02, R 2 ≥ .04). State fatigue, state energy, and sex were predictors of gait (p ≤ .05, R 2 ≥ .03). While the variance explained was low (3–13%), the results demonstrate perceptions of fatigue and energy may influence posture and gait.

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Reliability and Sensitivity of Reaction Time Measurements During Quasi-Realistic Soccer Situations

Lazar Tomic, Danica Janicijevic, Aleksandar Nedeljkovic, Bojan Leontijevic, and Amador García-Ramos

Reliability and sensitivity of reaction time (RT) during quasi-realistic soccer situations was explored in 10 professional soccer players (skilled; age = 20.9 ± 3.6 years) and 10 males without soccer experience (nonskilled; age = 23.4 ± 0.5 years). The participants were instructed to react as fast as possible to a stimulus presented via the video-based method while standing on force platforms. RT was computed as the difference between the instant when the rate of force development of any leg reaches 5% of its maximal value and the instant of stimulus presentation. The results revealed acceptable to high reliability of RT (intraclass correlation coefficient median = .90; coefficient of variation ≤ 5.83%), and shorter RT for skilled compared with nonskilled participants in three out of eight comparisons (effect size range = 1.00–1.41). The video-based methods can be confidently used to assess the RT in soccer players.

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Hip Sway in Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis During One-Leg Standing With a Focus on Time Series Data

Takuya Ibara, Makoto Takahashi, Koichi Shinkoda, Mahito Kawashima, and Masaya Anan

This study aimed to investigate the hip sway and the relationship between the center of pressure (CoP) and kinematic parameters regarding the time series scaling component α in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) during a one-leg standing task. The scaling exponent α, SD, hip sway maximal acceleration change, and balance performance, which was measured using CoP parameters, were compared between hip OA and control groups during a one-leg standing task. The relationships between balance performance with CoP parameters and kinematic parameters were investigated with the regression analysis. In the hip OA group, the scaling exponent α was smaller in the medial–lateral direction, and the SD and maximal amount of change in hip sway acceleration were larger in the anterior–posterior direction in the hip OA group. In this group, the CoP parameters were significantly associated with α in the medial–lateral direction (negatively) and in the anterior–posterior direction (positively). In the hip OA group, hip sway adaptability in the medial–lateral direction was limited, while the anterior–posterior direction showed greater movement.

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Bimanual Coordination in a Whole-Body Dynamic Balance Sport, Slacklining: A Comparison of Novice and Expert

Kentaro Kodama, Hideo Yamagiwa, and Kazuhiro Yasuda

As previous studies have suggested that bimanual coordination is important for slacklining, the authors questioned whether this important skill plays a role in the performance of a fundamental task of slacklining. To address this question, the authors compared single-leg standing on the slackline between novices and experts in terms of bimanual coordination dynamics within a dynamical systems framework using relative phase and recurrence quantification analysis measures. Five novices and five experts participated in the experiment. Participants were required to perform single-leg standing on a slackline. To collect motion data while slacklining, the authors used a 3D motion capture system and obtained time series data on the wrist position of both hands. The authors compared bimanual coordination dynamics between novices and experts. Although this preliminary study was limited in its sample size, the results suggest that experts tend to show a more antiphase coordination pattern than novices do and that they can more sustainably coordinate their hands compared with novices in terms of temporal structure in diagonal-related recurrence measures (i.e., maxline, mean line, and percentage determinism).

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How Common Is the Exponential Decay Pattern of Motor Skill Acquisition? A Brief Investigation

Geneviève N. Olivier, Christopher S. Walter, Serene S. Paul, Leland E. Dibble, and Sydney Y. Schaefer

Motor performance is classically described as improving nonlinearly with practice, demonstrating rapid improvements early in practice with stabilization later, which is commonly modeled by exponential decay functions. However, retrospective analyses of our previously collected data challenge this theoretical model of motor skill acquisition, suggesting that a majority of individual learners actually demonstrate patterns of motor improvement different from this classical model. A convenience sample of young adults, older adults, and people with Parkinson disease trained on the same functional upper-extremity task. When fitting three-parameter exponential decay functions to individual participant data, the authors found that only 13.3% of young adults, 40.9% of older adults, and 66.7% of adults with Parkinson disease demonstrated this “classical” skill acquisition pattern. Thus, the three-parameter exponential decay pattern may not well-represent individuals’ skill acquisition of complex motor tasks; instead, more individualized analysis methods may be warranted for advancing a theoretical understanding of motor skill acquisition.

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Restoring Walking Complexity in Older Adults Through Arm-in-Arm Walking: Were Almurad et al.’s (2018) Results an Artifact?

Samar Ezzina, Clément Roume, Simon Pla, Hubert Blain, and Didier Delignières

The analysis of stride series revealed a loss of complexity in older people, which correlated with the falling propensity. A recent experiment evidenced an increase of walking complexity in older participants when they walked in close synchrony with a younger companion. Moreover, a prolonged experience of such synchronized walking yielded a persistent restoration of complexity. This result, however, was obtained with a unique healthy partner, and it could be related to a particular partner’s behavior. The authors’ aim was to replicate this important finding using a different healthy partner and to compare the results to those previously obtained. The authors successfully replicated the previous results: synchronization yielded an attraction of participants’ complexity toward that of their partner and a restoration of complexity that persisted in two posttests, 2 and 6 weeks after the end of the training sessions. This study shows that this complexity restoration protocol can be applied successfully with another partner, and allows us to conclude that it can be generalized.

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Influence of Chronotype on Motor Behavior in Healthy Individuals: Analyses of Manual Dexterity in Different Times of the Day

Nathálya Gardênia de Holanda Marinho Nogueira, Bárbara de Paula Ferreira, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Juliana Otoni Parma, Sara Edith Souza de Assis Leão, Guilherme Menezes Lage, and Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes

This study investigated the influence of chronotype on motor behavior in a manual dexterity task performed at different times of the day. Sixteen healthy adults of each chronotype (morning, evening, and neither), as measured by the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire, practiced both conditions of the Grooved Pegboard Test either in the morning or in the afternoon to early evening. The “neither” chronotype (65.12 ± 7.46) was outperformed (ps ≤ .03) by both the morning (56.09 ± 7.21) and evening (58.94 ± 7.53) chronotypes when the task had higher cognitive and motor demand but was not outperformed in the task with lower demand (morning = 18.46 ± 2.11; evening = 19.34 ± 2.79; neither = 21.47 ± 2.54; p > .05). No difference between the morning and evening chronotypes was found at the different times of the day (ps > .05), suggesting that a manual dexterity task is not sufficiently demanding to be influenced by chronotype.

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Differential Effects of Perturbation Magnitude on Reactive Balance Control in Young Sedentary Adults

Erika Zemková, Alena Cepková, and José M. Muyor

This study investigates postural responses to unexpected perturbations induced by a load release of different weights. Groups of 26 men (age 22.6 ± 2.4 years, height 178.0 ± 9.1 cm, and body mass 86.9 ± 11.5 kg) and 21 women (age 21.9 ± 2.7 years, height 168.8 ± 6.8 cm, and body mass 65.3 ± 8.7 kg) underwent load-triggered postural perturbations by 1 and 2 kg while standing on a force plate with either eyes open or eyes closed. Postural perturbations induced by a heavier load, representing about 2% and 3% of body weight in men and women, respectively, led to significantly higher peak anterior and peak posterior center of pressure displacements when compared with a lighter load (29.6% and 45.4%, respectively) both with eyes open (36.9%) and closed (42.1%). Their values were significantly lower in men than women only when a higher load was used (∼25%). However, there were no significant differences in time to peak anterior and posterior center of pressure displacements. These findings indicate that heavier load-induced postural perturbations are greater in women than men regardless of visual conditions. This underlines the importance of loading dose in the magnitude of postural responses to externally induced perturbations.

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Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities Rely on Somatosensory Information Rather Than Visual Information to Catch a Ball

W. Tolentino-Castro, L. Mochizuki, and H. Wagner

According to the literature, persons with intellectual disabilities have poor motor control in tasks in which motor anticipation is needed. Our study aimed to assess their motor behavior during interceptive tasks (a tennis ball interception with external-and-oneself throw conditions). A stick-bar was used as a reference or to support cloth to occlude a ball’s trajectory. Catch performance and interceptive behavior were analyzed (26 persons). The results show that high/low values of the initial approaching movement led to successful/successful catches, respectively. Our results are in line with the literature about the impact of poor motor control on performance in those with intellectual disabilities. We suggest that low anticipation may relate to problems in real-life situations.