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Richard J. Paulsen

This paper uses Major League Baseball data to examine the relationship between years remaining on player contracts and player performance. There is a potential for moral hazard to arise in this principal–agent relationship as the player may choose a less than optimal level of effort from the perspective of team management when the player has many guaranteed years remaining. A player fixed-effects estimation strategy, which finds a significant negative relationship between years remaining and performance, is employed. The primary contribution of this work is to show that this relationship is due to shirking. Alternative explanations for this relationship, such as teams signing improving players to multiyear contracts or players facing an adjustment process when joining a new team, are addressed. Additional evidence which is consistent with shirking behavior shows that shirking occurs on offense, not defense, and for position players, not pitchers.

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Emma Pullen, Daniel Jackson, Michael Silk, P. David Howe, and Carla Filomena Silva

In the United Kingdom, significant changes have occurred in the Paralympic media production environment and style of Paralympic broadcasting. Given the generative nature of media texts on cultural representation, the authors explore the circulation of disability narratives in contemporary Paralympic media coverage. Drawing on an integrated data set that brings together textual analysis and audience perceptions, the authors highlight the presence of three disability narratives, termed: extraordinary normalcy, ableist rehabilitation, and sporting ablenationalism. The authors unpack the ways these three narratives differ from the widely and commonly used “supercrip” critique and discuss the implications of these narratives, and the wider cultural discourses and dialogue they generate, in terms of inclusion/exclusion and progressive social change.

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Jason Laurendeau, Tiffany Higham, and Danielle Peers

In October 2018, Canadian retailer Mountain Equipment Co-op publicly asked, “Do white people dominate the outdoors?” and acknowledged that their representations were “part of [a] problem.” Relying on Ahmed’s theorizations of diversity work, this paper offers an intersectional interrogation of Mountain Equipment Co-op’s (MEC’s) commitment to including more “diversity” in their representations and considers how both MEC’s statement and their early efforts to diversify simultaneously efface the gendered, ableist, fatphobic, settler colonial and racist structuring of “the outdoors” both in MEC’s practices and in “Canada” more broadly. Our analysis highlights how MEC’s practices continue to reflect and reproduce the appropriation of wilderness for a narrow range of bodies.

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Joon Ho Lim, Leigh Anne Donovan, Peter Kaufman, and Chiharu Ishida

To examine how the level of humility expressed through athletes’ social media postings and post volume is associated with the athletes’ in-game performance, the authors collected National Football League players’ social media activities throughout one season, in addition to player performance and profile information. To account for the multilevel and panel structure of the data, they conducted a series of fixed-effects panel models. In addition to a negative relationship between social media posting frequency and performance, the authors found that players who post social media content with a higher level of humility are more likely to have better performances. However, this humility–performance association follows an inverted U-shaped relationship. The results provide insight into how critical athletes’ social media activity is for in-game performance. This study also provides important implications for athletes, team coaches, staff, and managers and provides guidance for future research.

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Chrysostomos Giannoulakis

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Lise Cardin, Daphné Bolz, and Jean Saint-Martin

« Quand je suis arrivée en France, […] tout ça, au fait, que j’avais vu, j’ai vécu en Pologne, j’ai transmis en France » (Folliot, 22 avril 2017). Cette notion de transmission semble importante pour Jadwiga Folliot, elle-même, lorsqu’elle décrit son parcours handballistique. Elle apparaît même comme un devoir au regard de sa trajectoire de vie. Née en 1953 à Cracovie, en Pologne, Jadwiga Nowak fait partie des meilleures juniors polonaises avant d’intégrer à 33 reprises, l’équipe nationale. Lorsqu’elle arrive en France le 1er décembre 1974, en pleine Guerre froide, des différences majeures transparaissent dans l’organisation du handball, et plus généralement dans la gouvernance du sport, entre la France et la Pologne. A partir de témoignages, de coupures de presse mais également d’archives institutionnelles de la Fédération Française de Handball, nous avons identifié les différents rôles assumés par Jadwiga Folliot dans le développement du handball au sein de l’Association Sportive de Mantes la Jolie, puis du département des Yvelines et plus largement au niveau de l’équipe de France qu’elle va intégrer en décembre 1975.Si elle ne peut importer le système sportif professionnel polonais en France, pays dans lequel le handball est encore amateur, il semble qu’elle ait réussi à importer certains aspects qui ont ensuite permis de hausser le niveau technique non seulement de son équipe de club, l’AS Mantaise, mais aussi et surtout de l’équipe de France féminine de handball.