Sport participation, consumption, and management are internationally focused, and the popularity of sport on an international scale shows no signs of slowing down. In fact, there is evidence that the internationalization of sport is rapidly increasing. Most North American institutions of higher learning are similarly focused and have internationalization as a high strategic priority. One could argue that sport management academic programs have not kept pace with these developments that have influenced our field and environment. While progress has been made, there is more to be done. The author chronicles the developments in the internationalization of both sport and higher education and offers eight suggestions to help sport management academicians effectively and efficiently internationalize their programs. Implementing some or all of these suggestions may better prepare graduates in their future endeavors and more effectively align sport management programs with the goals of their respective institution. Internationalization of the discipline would hold useful and practical applications for sport management students and programs.
W. James (Jim) Weese
Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan
Three experiments explore how sport consumers respond to sponsor advertisements featuring a team that lost a pivotal game. Drawing from social identity and appraisal theories, the authors hypothesize and find that high identifiers experience stronger negative emotions but less identity threat than low identifiers following their favorite team’s loss. When an advertisement features the losing team, low identifiers show less favorable evaluations toward the brand, whereas high identifiers report more favorable assessments. The results demonstrate that the tendency to hide and escape from the source of threat (losing team) among low identifiers is evidenced in processing marketing communications, whereas high identifiers display more positive evaluations toward the brand when the advertisement acknowledged the loss. The study findings provide implications for sponsors to consider different messaging strategies depending on the level of team identification with the losing team.
Olivia Wohlfart, Sandy Adam, Jorge García-Unanue, Gregor Hovemann, Berit Skirstad, and Anna-Maria Strittmatter
This study applies “Europeanness” to the analysis of internationalization in the sport management labor market and which changes this trend necessitates for sport management curricula. The authors employed an analysis of 30 semistructured interviews with key informants from Germany, Norway, and Spain. The results reveal various effects of internationalization on the sport sector and highlight the richness and diversity in the three countries. Sport management graduates need to possess a diverse set of competencies for successfully starting their careers. In addition to subject-specific knowledge, generic competencies such as the ability to work in a team, being able to communicate in diverse languages, and having intercultural skills are important. The article discusses knowledge of international sport organizations, their governance, global trends, and intercultural and language competencies, as well as international sport event management as identified themes and proposes specific curriculum changes to promote educational outcomes of sport management programs.
Nathanael C.H. Ong
Singaporean footballer Ben Davis applied for deferment from national service (NS) in order to pursue his dream of playing in the English Premier League. However, his deferment request was rejected by the Ministry of Defense, and there was a sizable national debate on whether Davis should be granted the deferment. The study sought to use the Ben Davis saga as a case study to provide an exploration of public opinion toward various issues relating to sport and society. A total of 14,093 comments were extracted from various news sources on Facebook, and a randomized sample of 1,875 comments was used for the final analysis. The constant comparative methodology was used to conduct a thematic analysis of the comments. The analysis produced four higher order themes: (a) sport in Singapore, (b) role and relevance of NS, (c) national interest versus individual choice, and (d) perception of new citizens and foreign talent.
Daniel L. Springer, Arden J. Anderson, Stuart M. Dixon, Stacy M. Warner, and Marlene A. Dixon
Sport management scholars have called for educators and students to increase their global perspectives to better reflect the globalization of the industry. Short-term study abroad trips represent an alternative to long-term study abroad trips and help address financial and temporal barriers associated with longer trips. Based on a holistic model of study abroad, the current study examined the associated outcomes of an intentional pretrip and in-trip design for sport management undergraduate students in a short-term study abroad program. Utilizing a mixed-methods design, the researchers asked students on a short-term trip to complete journals and an online survey regarding their cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal outcomes and corresponding experiences. Results indicate that students demonstrated learning in all three areas and highlight the importance for educators to identify opportunities to assist students in making meaning of their experiences and the corresponding lessons associated with those experiences. These findings provide guidance for educators on how intentionally planning pretrip and in-trip lessons can enhance holistic learning for short-term study abroad students.
Carrie LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer, Gregory Greenhalgh, Chad Goebert, and Jennifer Gellock
A globalized curriculum has the potential to prepare students in a way that equips them for whatever sport looks like in the future. Study abroad programs are one way to achieve this. The current study looked at two short-term study abroad programs (one to western Europe, one to South Africa), offered during the same semester at the same institution, comparing learning outcomes between students on the two trips. Utilizing a mixed methods design, students completed quantitative pre/post surveys and responded to qualitative, open-ended daily prompts while on the trips. Findings indicate that knowledge acquisition occurs in both programs; however, students traveling on a sport-focused service-based trip to South Africa had a more transformational learning experience than those traveling on a sport-business-focused trip to western Europe.
Jennifer M. Jacobs, Karisa L. Kuipers, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Paul M. Wright
Prior research has demonstrated the importance of engaging college students in a global curriculum that prepares them for the everchanging landscape of the sports industry. International learning experiences are one way to facilitate this type of professional preparation and often include the added benefit of having a deep personal impact. The purpose of this study was to understand university students’ experiences leading sessions for Belizean coaches as part of an international teaching experience. Participants were four university students pursuing interdisciplinary sport majors. Data sources included recorded interviews and daily group debrief sessions, reflective journals, social media-based photo journals, and observational fieldnotes. Qualitative data analysis resulted in the construction of three themes that described the participants’ experiences and learning outcomes: (a) personal and professional growth, (b) developing and maintaining relationships, and (c) engaging with culture. Results suggest that an international program designed to foster experiential, global learning was enhanced by the opportunity to teach in a new context, foster relationships with local stakeholders, and participate in pre- and posttrip training.
Joshua McLeod, David Shilbury, and Géraldine Zeimers
The purpose of this research was to examine the drivers and barriers of governance convergence in Indian sport. Governance convergence is defined as the adoption of four principles of good governance that are common in Western sport contexts—transparency, accountability, democracy, and social responsibility. To achieve the aim, a theoretical framework consisting of three interconnected levels—(a) the historically grown national institutional framework, (b) organizational field, and (c) organizational actors—was proposed, drawing primarily on institutional theory. A qualitative approach was used to empirically test the framework in the Indian sport context, where governance has been of key concern. The findings show that the framework is an effective tool for understanding the drivers and barriers of convergence with the defined principles of good governance. The development of this framework is important, given the link between the principles and positive organizational outcomes.
Tyreal Yizhou Qian, Jerred Junqi Wang, and James Jianhui Zhang
Shifting from a player-oriented approach, e-sports has increasingly positioned itself as emerging spectator entertainment. In the wake of the growing online viewer market, the industry has made tremendous efforts to innovate marketing strategies and build up a base of passionate fans across the globe. To augment this endeavor, the current study investigated push and pull factors that influence e-sports online viewers’ consumption behaviors (N = 1,309) using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The authors proposed a new way to operationalize push and pull factors that have been relatively overlooked in the literature. The findings indicated that, while push and pull factors had different effects on e-sports consumption behaviors, they should be considered equally important in e-sports livestreaming. The study expanded our understanding of the attractiveness and desirability of e-sports and shed some critical light on management and marketing issues within and beyond the e-sports space.