We strongly believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion in research lead to better science, more innovations and more relevant outcomes that better serve society at large. Historically, scientific research is quite WEIRD, meaning that it is dominated by researchers and study samples from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries. Such WEIRD research leads to results that better serve a small, privileged group of WEIRD people, widening health inequalities. Research among a selective group with similar backgrounds and perspectives results in bias and hinders innovation. As a result, we end up missing out on the valuable holistic viewpoint that more inclusive research would gain. In this invited commentary based on the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM) 2022 keynote presentation by Prof. ChinAPaw, we discuss the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in research and introduce our vision for AWESOME science—All-inclusive, Worldwide ranging, Equitable, Sincere, Open-minded, Mindful of our own implicit bias, and Essential—that is more inclusive and relevant for everyone regardless of who they are and where they live. More diversity, equity, and inclusion make our collective dance toward healthy societies more beautiful and impactful!
Mai ChinAPaw and Manou Anselma
Nancy E. Mayo, Kedar Mate, Olayinka Akinrolie, Hong Chan, Nancy M. Salbach, Sandra C. Webber, and Ruth Barclay
This study aimed to inform a measurement approach for older persons who wish to engage in active living such as participating in a walking program. The Patient Generated Index, an individualized measurement approach, and directed and summative content analyses were carried out. A sample size of 204 participants (mean age 75 years; 62% women) was recruited; it generated 934 text threads mapped to 460 unique categories within 45 domains with similarities and differences for women and men. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviors Model best linked the domains. The results suggest that older persons identify the need to overcome impaired capacity, low motivation, and barriers to engagement to live actively. These are all areas that active living programs could address. How to measure the outcomes of these programs remains elusive.
Yi Sun and Ye Yuan
External connectivity refers to the service opportunities provided by community open spaces that are influenced by the factors such as traffic distance, road conditions, residence patterns, and population distribution. It is an important factor in determining access to community open spaces. This has important implications for promoting walking behavior and community physical activity among aging urban populations. Using the accessibility evaluation method, we proposed an external connectivity of the community open spaces model from the community perspective and conducted an empirical study using the Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen as an example. External connectivity of the community open spaces can be used to evaluate the efficiency of community open spaces, serving as a reference for open space optimization. Moreover, it has applicable value in promoting physical activity and healthy aging among older adults.
Michaela M. Keener, Kimberly I. Tumlin, and Deirdre Dlugonski
Background: Over 75% of American adults are not meeting aerobic and muscular physical activity recommendations, with the majority being females. Equestrian activities are a potential avenue to increase physical activity, especially in females who account for approximately 90% of sport participants. This study describes perceptions of equestrian activities and establishes the patterns of self-reported equestrian, barn work, and nonequestrian physical activity engagement to understand participation in activities that may sustain physical activity across the lifespan. Methods: American equestrians (n = 2551) completed an anonymous online survey with questions about perceptions and benefits of equestrian activities, demographics, and engagement in equestrian activities, barn work, and nonequestrian activities. Results: There were 2039 completed responses, (95.6% female), with representation from all regions of the United States. Professionals (20.6%), amateurs (39.1%), and recreational (40.3%) comprised participation status. Significantly fewer recreational participants perceived equestrian as physical activity and as a sport than amateurs (P < .05) and professionals (P < .05). Engagement in equestrian and barn work physical activity was significantly higher in professionals (P < .0001), followed by amateurs (P < .0001), with the lowest in recreational equestrians (P = .001). Professional and amateur equestrians engaged in significantly more nonequestrian physical activity than recreational participants (P < .05). Conclusions: Equestrian physical activity engagement is dependent on the status of participation. Equestrian, barn work, and nonequestrian physical activity do meet physical activity aerobic and muscular recommendations and should be encouraged as a physical activity for females across the lifespan.
Antonio Moreno-Llamas, Jesús García-Mayor, and Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez
Background: A low socioeconomic status (SES) presents lower physical activity; however, the relationship between SES and sedentary behavior (SB) remains unclear. We aimed to assess this association of SES with physical activity (PA) and SB. Methods: We employed representative self-reported data of the European Union from the cross-sectional survey Eurobarometer 2017, comprising a final sample of 13,708 citizens (18–64 y old), to assess the association of SES (education, occupation, and economic issues) with PA and sitting time quartiles, and to describe inequalities in vigorous, moderate, and walking activity and sitting time. Results: Multinomial regressions revealed that people from higher SESs were more likely to report higher PA; nonetheless, higher educational attainment and occupations were also associated with higher sitting time but not with lower economic issues. The inequality, shown by Gini coefficients, describes a socioeconomic gradient in vigorous and moderate activity, from higher inequality in lower statuses to lower inequality in higher statuses. The Gini coefficients also indicated higher socioeconomic inequalities in PA than SB. Conclusions: Higher SESs showed paradoxically more PA and SB; however, sitting time presented smaller differences and a more homogeneous distribution across the population.
Shruti Patelia, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker
Issues relating to older adults in sport are ongoing topics of interest among sport scientists; however, our knowledge on how older athletes have been studied is incomplete, which has implications for understanding the comprehensiveness of this evidence base. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of how sport and older adults have been studied since the first World Masters Games. Data on research topics, research methods, sport-specific information, and demographic information on older athletes were collected and reviewed. Results suggest older athletes who are White, male, and competitive athletes have largely been the focus of research. In addition, results highlight an alarming number of unreported data related to the demographics of athlete samples. As a result, the well-documented benefits of sport may reflect a homogenous group of older adults, limiting our overall understanding of aging and sport and the value of this research for developing evidence-informed policy.
Kirsten Dillon-Rossiter, Madison Hiemstra, Nina Bartmann, Wuyou Sui, Marc Mitchell, Scott Rollo, Paul A. Gardiner, and Harry Prapavessis
Office workers who transitioned to working from home are spending an even higher percentage of their workday sitting compared with being “in-office” and this is an emerging health concern. With many office workers continuing to work from home since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to have a validated self-report questionnaire to assess sedentary behavior, break frequency, and duration, to reduce the cost and burden of using device-based assessments. This secondary analysis study aimed to validate the modified Last 7-Day Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SIT-Q 7d) against an activPAL4™ device in full-time home-based “office” workers (n = 148; mean age = 44.90). Participants completed the modified SIT-Q 7d and wore an activPAL4 for a full work week. The findings showed that the modified SIT-Q 7d had low (ρ = .35–.37) and weak (ρ = .27–.28) criterion validity for accurate estimates of break frequency and break duration, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were large for break frequency (26.85–29.01) and medium for break duration (5.81–8.47), indicating that the modified SIT-Q 7d may not be appropriate for measuring occupational sedentary behavior patterns at the individual level. Further validation is still required before confidently recommending this self-report questionnaire to be used among this population to assess breaks in sedentary time.
Sam N. Thrower, Christopher M. Spray, and Chris G. Harwood
The purpose of the current study was to utilize the RE-AIM (i.e., reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to evaluate the national-level scale-out of the Lawn Tennis Association’s “Optimal Competition Parenting Workshop” (OCPW) across a 4-year period. During 2018, 65 workshops were run across the United Kingdom, 1,043 parents registered, and 933 parents attended. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, multilevel analyses revealed significant increases in parents’ (n = 130) task goal orientation and competition tennis parenting efficacy, as well as significant decreases in ego goal orientation and unpleasant emotions. Children’s perceptions of both mother- and father-initiated ego-involving motivational climate and their own ego goal orientation significantly decreased across time. From 2019 to 2021, a further 64 workshops were delivered to 1,110 parents with no significant differences in parents’ satisfaction, enjoyment, instructor evaluation, or transfer intention over time when compared against workshop evaluations in 2018. Overall, the OCPW represents a well-received, practical, and effective brief intervention for enhancing parental involvement in junior tennis.
Milla Saarinen, Raymond Bertram, Kaisa Aunola, Julia Pankkonen, and Tatiana V. Ryba
The present study longitudinally examined stability and change in the attributional profiles of Finnish student athletes (n = 391) in upper secondary sport schools. Moreover, it examined the extent to which these profiles, and changes in them, were associated with athletes’ level of sport competition and school achievements and dropouts at the end of upper secondary sport school. Using latent profile analysis, five different and highly stable attributional profiles were identified for student athletes: (a) depressive (6.9%), (b) athletic self-serving (23.0%), (c) average (16.4%), (d) learned helplessness (30.9%), and (e) responsible (22.8%). The results further showed that over the 3-year study period, the responsible attributional style, wherein individuals take responsibility for successes and failures, predicted student athletes’ subsequent high grade point average and low sport dropout rates even after controlling for the impacts of their earlier grade point average, gender, and type of sport.