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Li Yi, Tyler B. Mason, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Daniel Chu, and Genevieve F. Dunton

Background: Cross-sectional studies have shown positive associations between neighborhood park access and children’s physical activity (PA); however, research that examines the relationship longitudinally is lacking. This study investigates how neighborhood park access affects the longitudinal trajectory of PA in 192 children across 3 years. Methods: Accelerometer-assessed PA data of children (N = 202) were collected across 6 semi-annual waves (7 d each) between 2014 and 2018. Geographical information systems was used to measure neighborhood park access (ie, coverage, density, and proximity) at baseline. Mixed-effects models examined the associations of park access with children’s baseline and trajectory of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes across 3 years and whether the associations differed by sex or weekends versus weekdays. Results: Higher neighborhood park density, coverage, and proximity were positively associated with children’s baseline MVPA minutes per day. Longitudinally, higher park coverage was associated with smaller decreases in children’s MVPA minutes per day, but only during weekends. Park density and proximity were not associated with change in MVPA minutes per day. The above associations did not differ by sex. Conclusions: Having access to more neighborhood parklands protected against age-related declines in children’s PA. These findings suggest that neighborhood park coverage should be considered by urban planners when evaluating the health impacts of their policies.

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David I. Anderson and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

This special issue of Kinesiology Review celebrates the 40th anniversary of the publication of George Brooks’s Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education: A Tribute to G. Lawrence Rarick (1981). Written by many of the luminaries within kinesiology, the papers in this special issue highlight the tremendous growth of knowledge that has occurred in the subdisciplines of kinesiology over the last 40 years and the breadth of contexts in which new knowledge is now being applied. Kinesiology has rapidly become an influential discipline, and its breadth, depth, and influence continue to grow. Though not without challenges, there is much to be optimistic about concerning kinesiology’s future.

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Melinda A. Solmon

Scholarship related to physical education and sport pedagogy is rigorous and should be central to the academic discipline of kinesiology. The goal of this article is to situate physical education and sport pedagogy as an applied field in kinesiology, grounded in the assumption that physical education, as the professional or technical application of the broader academic discipline, is of critical importance to the success of kinesiology. A brief overview of the history of research on teaching physical education is followed by an overview of the streams of research that have evolved. Major tenets of research on effective teaching and curricular reform are discussed. The status of physical education teacher education and school physical education programs is considered, and a rationale for a broader view of pedagogy that has the potential not only to promote physical education and sport pedagogy but also to enrich the academic discipline is offered.

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Ruben Brondeel, Yan Kestens, Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Kevin Stanley, Benoit Thierry, and Daniel Fuller

Background: Closed-source software for processing and analyzing accelerometer data provides little to no information about the algorithms used to transform acceleration data into physical activity indicators. Recently, an algorithm was developed in MATLAB that replicates the frequently used proprietary ActiLife activity counts. The aim of this software profile was (a) to translate the MATLAB algorithm into R and Python and (b) to test the accuracy of the algorithm on free-living data. Methods: As part of the INTErventions, Research, and Action in Cities Team, data were collected from 86 participants in Victoria (Canada). The participants were asked to wear an integrated global positioning system and accelerometer sensor (SenseDoc) for 10 days on the right hip. Raw accelerometer data were processed in ActiLife, MATLAB, R, and Python and compared using Pearson correlation, interclass correlation, and visual inspection. Results: Data were collected for a combined 749 valid days (>10 hr wear time). MATLAB, Python, and R counts per minute on the vertical axis had Pearson correlations with the ActiLife counts per minute of .998, .998, and .999, respectively. All three algorithms overestimated ActiLife counts per minute, some by up to 2.8%. Conclusions: A MATLAB algorithm for deriving ActiLife counts was implemented in R and Python. The different implementations provide similar results to ActiLife counts produced in the closed source software and can, for all practical purposes, be used interchangeably. This opens up possibilities to comparing studies using similar accelerometers from different suppliers, and to using free, open-source software.

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Billy C.L. So, Sze C. Kwok, and Paul H. Lee

Background: Aerobic exercise improves sleep for people who have difficulty in sleeping soundly, but most research to date has focused on land-based exercise. There has been only very limited research into the effect of aquatic exercise on people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 6-week aquatic exercise program on sleep efficiency among adults with chronic MSK pain. Methods: A total of 30 adults with chronic MSK pain were recruited by convenience sampling and assigned into intervention and control groups by a trained research assistant. Their sleep efficiency, sleep quality, activity level, stress level, and pain level were measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer before and after the intervention group completed a 6-week, biweekly program of aquatic exercise. Results: Following intervention, the intervention group had significantly longer total true sleep time (by 27.6 min, P = .006); greater sleep efficiency (+3.01%, P = .005); and less pain (−1.33/10, P = .026). The control group had significantly shorter total true sleep time by 5.8 minutes (P = .036) while changes in the other outcomes were not significant. Conclusions: Six weeks of moderate-intensity aquatic exercise may improve sleep efficiency and reduce pain for persons suffering chronic MSK pain.

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Jane A. Kent and Kate L. Hayes

The field of exercise physiology has enjoyed tremendous growth in the past 40 years. With its foundations in the natural sciences, it is an interdisciplinary field that is highly relevant to human performance and health. The focus of this review is on highlighting new approaches, knowledge, and opportunities that have emerged in exercise physiology over the last four decades. Key among these is the adoption of advanced technologies by exercise physiologists to address fundamental research questions, and the expansion of research topics to range from molecular to organismal, and population scales in order to clarify the underlying mechanisms and impact of physiological responses to exercise in health and disease. Collectively, these advances have ensured the position of the field as a partner in generating new knowledge across many scientific and health disciplines.

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Diane L. Gill, Erin J. Reifsteck, and Leilani Madrigal

As part of the 40th anniversary of the publication of Brooks’s (1981) Perspectives on the Academic Discipline of Physical Education, the authors offer an update on the Sport Psychology chapter, including key developments, topics, and issues in sport and exercise psychology. They begin with an overview of the 1981 chapter and state of sport psychology as described during that time. Then, in the main part of the article, they go through each of the main topics as presented in the 1981 chapter—highlighting what’s gone, what’s stayed, what’s changed, and what’s new. In the final section, they discuss the current state of sport and exercise psychology and end with their aspirations for sport and exercise psychology.

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Tiago R. de Lima, David A. González-Chica, Eleonora D’Orsi, Xuemei Sui, and Diego A.S. Silva

Background: The authors aimed to identify the effect of adherence to healthy lifestyle habits on muscle strength (MS) according to a distinct health status. Methods: Longitudinal analysis using data from 2 population-based cohorts in Brazil (EpiFloripa adult, n = 862, 38.8 [11.4] y—6 y of follow-up length; EpiFloripa Aging, n = 1197, 69.7 [7.1] y—5 y of follow-up length). MS was assessed by handgrip strength (kgf). Information assessed by questionnaire regarding adequate physical activity levels, regular consumption of fruit and vegetables, low alcohol consumption, and nonsmoking habits were analyzed in the relationship with MS according to the health status. The participants were grouped into 3 health status categories: (1) with cardiovascular disease (CVD); (2) at risk of CVD (abdominal obesity or overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia); and (3) healthy individuals (without CVD and risk of CVD). Results: Simultaneous adherence of 4 healthy lifestyle habits was directly associated with MS among healthy individuals (β = 10.0, 95% CI, 2.0–18.0, SE = 4.0), at risk of CVD (β = 5.5, 95% CI, 0.3–12.6, SE = 3.6), and those with CVD (β = 11.4, 95% CI, 5.8–16.7, SE = 2.8). Conclusions: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can contribute to increased MS in adults and older adults, regardless of health status.

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Mark L. Latash

Motor control is a young and aspiring field of natural science. Over the past 40 years, it has become an established field of study with several important theoretical developments, including the equilibrium-point hypothesis and its more recent version known as the control with referent spatial coordinates, the principle of abundance, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the concept of dynamic neural field as the means of task formulation. Important experimental advances have included the exploration of the notion of synergies, the links between descending signals from the brain and referent coordinates of the effectors, and applications of motor control principles to analysis of disordered movements. Further maturation of motor control requires focusing on theory-driven studies. It promises fruitful applications to applied fields such as movement disorders and rehabilitation.