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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Richard Larouche, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: In Colombia, active transportation has been assessed in multiple local and regional studies, but national data on active transportation are scarce. This study aims to describe the prevalence and factors associated with active transportation to/from school among Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: The authors analyzed nationally representative data from the National Survey of Nutrition 2015, with a sample of 11,466 children and adolescents aged between 3 and 17 years. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression multivariable models with robust variance. Results: Approximately 70% of Colombian children and adolescents reported engaging in active transportation to/from school over the last week. There were no differences by sex among preschoolers nor school-aged children. Fewer adolescent females than males used active transportation. Preschoolers and school-aged children living in Bogota were more likely to report active transport than children from other regions (prevalence ratios for other regions ranged from 0.59 to 0.86). School-aged children and adolescents with a lower wealth index were more likely to use active transportation than their counterparts (prevalence ratios = 1.32 and 1.22, respectively). Conclusions: The wealthiest children and adolescents, adolescents from rural areas, and female adolescents should be a focus for future interventions. Actions need to be implemented to improve the involvement in active transportation to/from school in Colombia.

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Marissa A. Gogniat, Catherine M. Mewborn, Talia L. Robinson, Kharine R. Jean, and L. Stephen Miller

The population of older adults is increasing, indicating a need to examine factors that may prevent or mitigate age-related cognitive decline. The current study examined whether microstructural white matter characteristics mediated the relation between physical activity and executive function in older adults without any self-reported psychiatric and neurological disorders or cognitive impairment (N = 43, mean age = 73 y). Physical activity was measured by average intensity and number of steps via accelerometry. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to examine microstructural white matter characteristics, and neuropsychological testing was used to examine executive functioning. Parallel mediation models were analyzed using microstructural white matter regions of interest as mediators of the association between physical activity and executive function. Results indicated that average steps was significantly related to executive function (β = 0.0003, t = 2.829, P = .007), while moderate to vigorous physical activity was not (β = 0.0007, t = 1.772, P = .08). White matter metrics did not mediate any associations. This suggests that microstructural white matter characteristics alone may not be the mechanism by which physical activity impacts executive function in aging.

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Laura E. Balis and Samantha M. Harden

Background: Interventions undergo adaptations when moving from efficacy to effectiveness trials. What happens beyond these initial steps—that is, when the “research” is over—is often unknown. The degree to which implementation quality remains high and impacts remain robust is underreported as these data are often less valued by community entities. Comprehensive and iterative evaluation is recommended to ensure robust outcomes over time. Methods: The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework was used within an assess, plan, do, evaluate, report process to determine the degree to which a statewide physical activity promotion program aligned with evidence-based core components, assess who was reached and impacts on physical activity behaviors, and make decisions for future iterations. Results: Walk Across Arkansas was adopted by a majority of delivery agents and was effective at increasing physical activity levels postprogram, but those effects were not maintained after 6 months. Future decisions included recruitment strategies to reach a more diverse population and a blueprint document to reduce program drift. Conclusions: This article details the process of “replanning” a community-based physical activity intervention to understand public health impact and make decisions for future iterations. Pragmatic reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance questions were useful throughout the assess, plan, do, evaluate, report process.

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Marcus V.V. Lopes, Bruno G.G. da Costa, Luis E.A. Malheiros, Rafael M. Costa, Ana C.C. Souza, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, and Kelly S. Silva

This study (a) compared accelerometer wear time and compliance between distinct wrist-worn accelerometer data collection plans, (b) analyzed participants’ perception of using accelerometers, and (c) identified sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of accelerometer compliance. A sample of high school students (n = 143) wore accelerometers attached to the wrist by a disposable polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wristband or a reusable fabric wristband for 24 hr over 6 days. Those who wore the reusable fabric band, but not their peers, were instructed to remove the device during water-based activities. Participants answered a questionnaire about sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and reported their experience wearing the accelerometer. We computed non-wear time and checked participants’ compliance with wear-time criteria (i.e., at least three valid weekdays and one valid weekend day) considering two valid day definitions separately (i.e., at least 16 and 23 hours of accelerometer data). Participants who wore a disposable band had greater compliance compared with those who wore a reusable band for both 16-hr (93% vs. 76%, respectively) and 23-hr valid day definitions (91% vs. 50%, respectively). High schoolers with the following characteristics were less likely to comply with wear time criteria if they (a) engaged in labor-intensive activities, (b) perceived that wearing the monitor hindered their daily activities, or (c) felt ashamed while wearing the accelerometer. In conclusion, the data collection plan composed of using disposable wristbands and not removing the monitor resulted in greater 24-hr accelerometer wear time and compliance. However, a negative experience in using the accelerometer may be a barrier to high schoolers’ adherence to rigorous protocols.

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Doris Gebhard and Filip Mess

The objective of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a physical activity intervention for institutionalized people with dementia, individualized by capacity and biography. The intervention group (n = 34; age: mean = 86.09 years; 79.40% female; mean Mini-Mental State Examination value = 18.59) participated in a multicomponent training program, which included daily activities, dancing, gardening, and sports/games, twice weekly for 3 months. The control group (n = 29; age: mean = 86.34 years; 75.90% female; mean Mini-Mental State Examination value = 19.90) received standard care. Feasibility was evaluated by means of focus groups and feedback questionnaires. Functional performance (Short Physical Performance Battery and Timed Up and Go Test), activities of daily living, and gait were outcomes for effectiveness. A high adherence rate (80.46%) and uniformly positive feedback indicate that the piloted training program is feasible. The results show preliminary effectiveness on functional performance (Short Physical Performance Battery mean t0 = 3.15; mean t1 = 4.50; p = .006) and gait (e.g., velocity mean t 0 = 46.97; mean t 1 = 58.04; p = .007).

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Oladipo Eddo, João R. Vaz, Jaime Ludwick, Bryndan Lindsey, Joel Martin, Shane Caswell, and Nelson Cortes

Trunk modification is associated with knee abduction moment reduction in both healthy groups and individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Ambulatory-related changes in trunk kinematics have been implicated in increased trunk moment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dose-specific lateral trunk lean on trunk kinetics during ipsilateral and contralateral stance phases. Nineteen healthy participants completed 10 baseline walking trials, followed by 10 trials employing lateral trunk lean. Trunk modification magnitudes were determined based on the average baseline trunk angle. Five trials of both small and large trunk modification magnitudes were completed. Visual real-time biofeedback was projected as a line graph displaying the trunk angle during stance, and a highlighted bandwidth was designated the target range. A 1-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance or Friedman test was used to assess differences between the conditions (P < .05) in trunk dependent measures. Trunk kinetics displayed significant increases, even during modest modifications to the trunk angle. The participants experienced increased peak frontal plane trunk moment and angular impulse during ipsilateral stance. The observed increase in the peak lateral joint reaction force is suggestive of a compromised loading environment at the spine. Implementing trunk modification might result in unintended secondary changes along the kinetic chain, but further investigation is required.

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Megan M. Byrd, Anthony P. Kontos, Shawn R. Eagle, and Samuel Zizzi

This study used an exploratory mixed-method sequential design to examine anger, impulsivity, and anxiety following sport-related concussions (SRC). Ten college athletes (M = 20.10 years, SD = 2.92) completed four measures 1–10 days postconcussion (Visit 1) and 11–20 days postconcussion (Visit 2). At return to play or 30 days postconcussion, the athletes completed a semistructured interview (follow-up) to assess their lived experiences of the emotional sequelae of concussions. All participants indicated experiencing some level of anxiety at Visit 1, with half the participants scoring above the measure’s threshold for probable clinical diagnosis of anxiety. The results found a significant decrease in symptoms and anxiety at Visit 2. Inductive coding revealed frustration, irritability, impulsive behavior, and fear of the unknown as themes pertaining to athletes’ experiences. The findings highlight the need for sports medicine and sport psychology professionals to provide athletes with information to normalize their emotional responses during recovery.

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Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, and Jordan Santos-Concejero

Purpose: Optimal training for endurance performance remains a debated topic. In this case study, the training of a world-class middle-/long-distance runner over a year’s duration is presented. Methods: The training is analyzed via 2 methods to define training intensity distribution (TID) (1) by physiological zones and (2) by zones based on race pace. TID was analyzed over the full season, but also over the final 6, 12, and 26 weeks to allow for consideration of periodization/phases of season. The results of both methods are compared. Other training data measured include volume and number of sessions. Results: The average weekly volume for the athlete was 145.8 (24.8) km·wk−1. TID by physiological analysis was polarized for the last 6 weeks of the season but was pyramidal when analyzed over the final 12, 26, and 52 weeks of the season. TID by race-pace analysis was pyramidal across all time points. The athlete finished 12th in the final of the World Championship 5000-m and made the semifinal of the 1500-m. He was ranked in the top 16 in the world for 1500, 5000, and 10,000 m. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a potential flaw with recent work suggesting polarized training as the most effective means to improve endurance performance. Here, different analysis methods produced 2 different types of TID. A polarized distribution was only seen when analyzed by physiological approach, and only during the last 6 weeks of a 52-week season. Longer-term prospective studies relating performance and physiological changes are suggested.

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Jillian L. Hawkins and Clare E. Milner

Differences in walking biomechanics between groups or conditions should be greater than the measurement error to be considered meaningful. Reliability and minimum detectable differences (MDDs) have not been determined for lower-extremity angles and moments during walking within a session, as needed for interpreting differences in cross-sectional studies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine within-session reliability and MDDs for peak ankle, knee, and hip angles and moments during walking. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used to record walking at 1.25 m/s (±5%) in 18 men, 18–50 years of age. Peak angles and moments were calculated for 2 sets of 3 trials. Intraclass correlation coefficients (3, 3) were used to determine within-session reliability. In addition, MDDs were calculated. Within-session reliability was good to excellent for all variables. The MDDs ranged from 0.9° to 3.6° for joint angles and 0.06 to 0.15 N·m/kg for joint moments. Within-session reliability for peak ankle, knee, and hip angles and moments was better than the between-session reliability reported previously. Overall, our MDDs were similar or smaller than those previously reported for between-session reliability. The authors recommend using these MDDs to aid in the interpretation of cross-sectional comparisons of lower-extremity biomechanics during walking in healthy men.

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Bridget Coyle-Asbil, Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, David W.L. Ma, Jess Haines, and Lori Ann Vallis

Sleep is vital for healthy development of young children; however, it is not understood how the quality and quantity vary between the weekends and weekdays (WE–WD). Research focused on older children has demonstrated that there is significant WE–WD variability and that this is associated with adiposity. It is unclear how this is experienced among preschoolers. This study explored: (a) the accuracy of WE–WD sleep as reported in parental logbooks compared with accelerometers; (b) the difference between WE and WD total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and timing, as assessed by accelerometers; and (c) the association between the variability of these metrics and adiposity. Eighty-seven preschoolers (M = 46; 4.48 ± 0.89 years) wore an accelerometer on their right hip for 7 days. Parents were given logbooks to track “lights out” times (sleep onset) and out of bed time (sleep offset). Compared with accelerometers, parental logbook reports indicated earlier sleep onset and later sleep offset times on both WEs and WDs. Accelerometer-derived total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and onset/offset were not significantly different on the WEs and WDs; however, a sex effect was observed, with males going to bed and waking up earlier than females. Correlation analyses revealed that variability of sleep onset times throughout the week was positively correlated with percentage of fat mass in children. Results suggest that variability of sleep onset may be associated with increased adiposity in preschool children. Additional research with larger and more socioeconomically and racially diverse samples is needed to confirm these findings.