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Comment on “CYP1A2 Genotype Modifies the Effects of Caffeine Compared With Placebo on Muscle Strength in Competitive Male Athletes”

Gabriel Barreto, Gabriel P. Esteves, Felipe Miguel Marticorena, and Bryan Saunders

Open access

Making Sense of Muscle Protein Synthesis: A Focus on Muscle Growth During Resistance Training

Oliver C. Witard, Laurent Bannock, and Kevin D. Tipton

The acute response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to resistance exercise and nutrition is often used to inform recommendations for exercise programming and dietary interventions, particularly protein nutrition, to support and enhance muscle growth with training. Those recommendations are worthwhile only if there is a predictive relationship between the acute response of MPS and subsequent muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training. The metabolic basis for muscle hypertrophy is the dynamic balance between the synthesis and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in muscle. There is ample evidence that the process of MPS is much more responsive to exercise and nutrition interventions than muscle protein breakdown. Thus, it is intuitively satisfying to translate the acute changes in MPS to muscle hypertrophy with training over a longer time frame. Our aim is to examine and critically evaluate the strength and nature of this relationship. Moreover, we examine the methodological and physiological factors related to measurement of MPS and changes in muscle hypertrophy that contribute to uncertainty regarding this relationship. Finally, we attempt to offer recommendations for practical and contextually relevant application of the information available from studies of the acute response of MPS to optimize muscle hypertrophy with training.

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Association of Vitamin D Supplementation in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscle Strength in Adult Twins: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Jeane Franco Pires Medeiros, Michelle Vasconcelos de Oliveira Borges, Aline Alves Soares, Elys Costa de Sousa, José Ronaldo Ribeiro da Costa, Weberthon Alessanderson Costa Silva, Magnus Vinícius Bezerra de Sousa, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas, and André Ducati Luchessi

This article has been retracted as of May 6, 2022, because concerns were received from a reader that the article contains inaccurate data. An independent review of the study data was conducted in coordination with the authors, and it was determined that the originally published data are inaccurate and a complete set of corrected data is not available as the authors claim a portion of the original measurements have been lost. As a result of these findings, the article is retracted.

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Single and Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Do Not Improve Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Soccer Players

Rafaela Nehme, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Públio F. Vieira, Ana Vitória C. Guimarães, Gederson K. Gomes, Gabriela P. Teixeira, Pedro H. Rodrigues, Leonardo M. de Castro Junior, Guilherme M. Puga, Bryan Saunders, and Erick P. de Oliveira

Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing seems to improve performance in exercises lasting 30–60 min. However, its effects on intermittent exercise are unclear. It is also unknown whether serial CHO mouth rinses can promote additional ergogenic effects when compared with a single mouth rinse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and serial CHO mouth rinses on Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) performance in soccer players. In a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 male (18.9 ± 0.5 years) soccer players performed eight serial mouth rinses under three different conditions: placebo solution only (noncaloric juice), seven placebo mouth rinses plus a single CHO mouth rinse (8% maltodextrin), or eight CHO mouth rinses (8-CHO). Following the final mouth rinse, individuals performed the Yo-Yo IR1 test to evaluate the maximal aerobic endurance performance measured via total distance covered. There were no differences in Yo-Yo IR1 performance between sessions (p = .32; single CHO mouth rinse (8% maltodextrin): 1,198 ± 289 m, eight CHO mouth rinses: 1,256 ± 253 m, placebo: 1,086 ± 284 m). In conclusion, single and serial CHO mouth rinsing did not improve performance during the Yo-Yo IR1 for soccer players. These data suggest that CHO mouth rinsing is not an effective ergogenic strategy for intermittent exercise performance irrespective of the number of rinses.

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Astaxanthin Supplementation Increases Glutathione Concentrations but Does Not Impact Fat Oxidation During Exercise in Active Young Men

Matthew J. McAllister, Joni A. Mettler, Kyle Patek, Matthew Butawan, and Richard J. Bloomer

This study investigated the effects of 6 mg/day of astaxanthin supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and substrate metabolism during a graded exercise test in active young men. A double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design was used. Fourteen men (age = 23 ± 2 years) supplemented with 6 mg/day of astaxanthin and a placebo for 4 weeks, with a 1 week washout period between treatments. Following each supplementation period, a fasting blood sample was obtained to measure markers of oxidative stress: glutathione, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products, and malondialdehyde. Participants also completed a graded exercise test after each treatment to determine substrate utilization during exercise at increasing levels of intensity. Glutathione was ∼7% higher following astaxanthin compared with placebo (1,233 ± 133 vs. 1,156 ± 185 μM, respectively; p = .02, d = 0.48). Plasma hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde were not different between treatments (p > .05). Although not statistically significant (p = .45), advanced oxidation protein products were reduced by ∼28%. During the graded exercise test, mean fat oxidation rates were not different between treatments (p > .05); however, fat oxidation decreased from 50 to 120 W (p < .001) and from 85 to 120 W (p = .004) in both conditions. Astaxanthin supplementation of 6 mg/day for 4 weeks increased whole blood levels of the antioxidant glutathione in active young men but did not affect oxidative stress markers or substrate utilization during exercise. Astaxanthin appears to be an effective agent to increase endogenous antioxidant status.

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CYP1A2 Genotype Polymorphism Influences the Effect of Caffeine on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Males

Shahin Minaei, Mohammad Rahman Rahimi, Hemn Mohammadi, Morteza Jourkesh, Richard B. Kreider, Scott C. Forbes, Tacito P. Souza-Junior, Steven R. McAnulty, and Douglas Kalman

The purpose was to investigate the effects of CYP1A2 −163C > A polymorphism on the effects of acute caffeine (CAF) supplementation on anaerobic power in trained males. Sixteen trained males (age: 21.6 ± 7.1 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass: 72.15 ± 6.8 kg) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled crossover design. Participants supplemented with CAF (6 mg/kg of body mass) and an isovolumetric PLA (maltodextrin) in random order and separated by 7 days, before an all-out 30-s anaerobic cycling test to determine peak, average, and minimum power output, and fatigue index. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted to identify each participants CYP1A2 genotype. Six participants expressed AA homozygote and 10 expressed C alleles. There was a treatment by genotype interaction for peak power output (p = .041, η2 = .265, observed power = 0.552) with only those expressing AA genotype showing improvement following CAF supplementation compared with PLA (CAF: 693 ± 108 watts vs. PLA: 655 ± 97 watts; p = .039), while no difference between treatments was noted in those expressing C alleles (CAF: 614 ± 92 watts vs. PLA: 659 ± 144 watts; p = .135). There were no other interaction or main effects for average or minimum power output, or fatigue index (p > .05). In conclusion, the ingestion of 6 mg/kg of CAF improved peak power output only in participants with the AA genotype compared with PLA; however, expression of the CYP1A2 did not influence average or minimum power output or fatigue index.

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Increased Fat Oxidation During Arm Cycling Exercise in Adult Men With Spinal Cord Injury Compared With Noninjured Controls

Soraya Martín-Manjarrés, Carlos Rodríguez-López, María Martín-García, Sara Vila-Maldonado, Cristina Granados, Esmeralda Mata, Ángel Gil-Agudo, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, and Ignacio Ara

People with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to be more sedentary and increase fat accumulation, which could have a negative influence on metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity to oxidize fat in a homogenous sample of men with thoracic SCI compared with healthy noninjured men during an arm cycling incremental test. Forty-one men, 21 with SCI and 20 noninjured controls, performed an incremental arm cycling test to determine peak fat oxidation (PFO) and the intensity of exercise that elicits PFO (Fatmax). PFO was expressed in absolute values (g/min) and relative to whole-body and upper-body lean mass ([mg·min−1]·kg−1) through three different models (adjusting by cardiorespiratory fitness and fat mass). Gross mechanical efficiency was also calculated. PFO was higher in SCI than in noninjured men (0.27 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.07 g/min; 5.39 ± 1.30 vs. 3.29 ± 1.31 [mg·min−1]·kg−1 whole-body lean mass; 8.28 ± 2.11 vs. 5.08 ± 2.12 [mg·min−1]·kg−1 upper-body lean mass). Fatmax was found at a significantly higher percentage of VO2peak in men with SCI (33.6% ± 8.2% vs. 23.6% ± 6.4%). Differences persisted and even increased in the fully adjustment model and at any intensity. Men with SCI showed significantly higher gross mechanical efficiency at 35 and 65 W than the noninjured group. Men with SCI showed higher fat oxidation when compared with noninjured men at any intensity, even increased after full adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that SCI men could improve their metabolic flexibility and muscle mass for greater efficiency, not being affected by their fat accumulation.

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Widespread Supplement Intake and Use of Poor Quality Information in Elite Adolescent Swiss Athletes

Samuel Mettler, Georgette Lehner, and Gareth Morgan

Compared with adult athletes, rather little is known about supplementation behavior in adolescent athletes. This study’s aim was to determine elite adolescent athletes’ supplement use and sources of information relating thereto. A total of 430 (87%) of 496 questioned athletes returned the anonymized questionnaire. Thereof, 84% consumed at least one weekly supplement and 97% indicated some supplement intake during the previous 4 weeks. On average, 13.3 supplement servings were consumed per week. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile was 4.5, 10.5, and 20.0 servings per week, with a maximum of 67. The most prevalent supplements in use were multimineral products (41% of all athletes), multivitamins (34%), Vitamin C (34%), and Vitamin D (33%). Male athletes consumed significantly more Vitamin C and D, sports drinks, protein powder, and recovery products compared with female athletes; whereas, women consumed more iron supplements. The three most important motives for supplement use were recovery support (40%), health maintenance (39%), and performance enhancement (30%). The most frequent answers to the question “who recommended that you use supplements” were family/friends (36%), a physician (27%), and a trainer/coach (25%). The main three information sources about the supplements in use were the persons who recommended the supplementation (56%), the internet (25%), and information provided by supplement suppliers (11%). A positive doping attitude was associated with the consumption of performance enhancing supplements (p = .017). In conclusion, this study among elite adolescent Swiss athletes indicates a widespread and large-scale use of dietary supplements, which was associated with a low level of information quality.

Open access

The Effect of Whole Egg Intake on Muscle Mass: Are the Yolk and Its Nutrients Important?

Heitor O. Santos, Gederson K. Gomes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Erick P. de Oliveira

Whole egg may have potential benefits for enhancing muscle mass, independent of its protein content. The yolk comprises ∼40% of the total protein in an egg, as well as containing several nonprotein nutrients that could possess anabolic properties (e.g., microRNAs, vitamins, minerals, lipids, phosphatidic acid and other phospholipids). Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence as to the possible effects of egg yolk compounds on skeletal muscle accretion beyond those of egg whites alone. The intake of whole egg seems to promote greater myofibrillar protein synthesis than egg white intake in young men. However, limited evidence shows no difference in muscle hypertrophy when comparing the consumption of whole egg versus an isonitrogenous quantity of egg white in young men performing resistance training. Although egg yolk intake seems to promote additional acute increases on myofibrillar protein synthesis, it does not seem to further enhance muscle mass when compared to egg whites when consumed as part of a high-protein dietary patterns, at least in young men. This conclusion is based on very limited evidence and more studies are needed to evaluate the effects of egg yolk (or whole eggs) intake on muscle mass not only in young men, but also in other populations such as women, older adults, and individuals with muscle wasting diseases.

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Prevalence of Surrogate Markers of Relative Energy Deficiency in Male Norwegian Olympic-Level Athletes

Thomas Birkedal Stenqvist, Anna Katarina Melin, Ina Garthe, Gary Slater, Gøran Paulsen, Juma Iraki, Jose Areta, and Monica Klungland Torstveit

The syndrome of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) includes wide-ranging effects on physiological and psychological functioning, performance, and general health. However, RED-S is understudied among male athletes at the highest performance levels. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate surrogate RED-S markers prevalence in Norwegian male Olympic-level athletes. Athletes (n = 44) aged 24.7 ± 3.8 years, body mass 81.3 ± 15.9 kg, body fat 13.7% ± 5.8%, and training volume 76.1 ± 22.9 hr/month were included. Assessed parameters included resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and venous blood variables (testosterone, free triiodothyronine, cortisol, and lipids). Seven athletes (16%) grouped by the presence of low RMR (RMRratio < 0.90) (0.81 ± 0.07 vs. 1.04 ± 0.09, p < .001, effect size 2.6), also showed lower testosterone (12.9 ± 5.3 vs. 19.0 ± 5.3 nmol/L, p = .020) than in normal RMR group. In low RMRratio individuals, prevalence of other RED-S markers (—subclinical—low testosterone, low free triiodothyronine, high cortisol, and elevated low-density lipoprotein) was (N/number of markers): 2/0, 2/1, 2/2, 1/3. Low bone mineral density (z-score < −1) was found in 16% of the athletes, all with normal RMR. Subclinical low testosterone and free triiodothyronine levels were found in nine (25%) and two (5%) athletes, respectively. Subclinical high cortisol was found in 23% of athletes while 34% had elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Seven of 12 athletes with two or more RED-S markers had normal RMR. In conclusion, this study found that multiple RED-S markers also exist in male Olympic-level athletes. This highlights the importance of regular screening of male elite athletes, to ensure early detection and treatment of RED-S.