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Behavioral Determinants of Physical Activity Among Secondary School Students Aged 14–15 Years in Cambodia

Kurusart Konharn, Suvannetra Po, Jirachai Karawa, Paramaporn Sangpara, and Lee David Johnson

Background: There is little known about physical activity (PA) behaviors and its determinants in Cambodian adolescents, particularly with regard to the home and school settings. Therefore, we aimed to investigate these behaviors and determinants on their PA. Methods: The samples collected were from 168 high school students, aged 14–15 years. They were requested to complete the self-report PA questionnaire. Time spent in PA during weekday and weekend by school location and gender, and determinants on PA were analyzed. Differences in the mean values of the PA levels (in minutes) during weekday and the weekend between genders, and between school locations were analyzed using independent sample t tests. The percentage of students’ perceptions on the determinants were calculated. Chi-squared test was used to compare the differences in prevalence of students’ activities during their free time with respect to school location and gender. Results: The majority of the parents (86.9%–98.2%) demonstrated strong support for their children for academic work. Rural students spent an average time of moderate-to-vigorous PA greater than their counterparts from the urban areas during their weekend days (329.1 vs 239.2 min, respectively). Moderate to vigorous PA was likely to be higher during the weekends compared with weekdays among the boys (387.9 vs 361.4 min, respectively). Girls were more likely to spend their time on moderate to vigorous PA during the weekdays compared with the weekends (205.4 vs 180.5 min, respectively). Conclusion: Consideration should be given to gender, school location, free time, and the environmental setting for the contextualization of more effective PA interventions with Cambodian youths.

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Influence of Pokémon Go Playing Style on Physical Activity and Its Effect on Kinanthropometry Variables and Body Composition in Adolescents

Adrián Mateo-Orcajada, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal, and Lucía Abenza-Cano

Background: Pokémon Go is a mobile app that offers both continuous and intermittent (gamified) gameplay, but no previous research in adolescents is known to have addressed changes in physical activity and body composition according to playing style. For this reason, the aims of the present investigation were (1) to establish the differences in the level of physical activity, and its influence on the kinanthropometric and body composition, of the adolescent population, considering their Pokémon Go playing style; and (2) to analyze whether the practice of previous physical activity has an influence on the effects of the use of Pokémon Go on the level of physical activity and changes in kinanthropometric and body composition variables. Methods: A total of 94 adolescents (50 males and 44 females; mean age: 13.66 [1.17] years-old; mean body mass index: 20.82 [4.03] kg/m2) whose physical activity level and body composition were measured, participated in the investigation. Two groups of adolescents completed a 10-week intervention using Pokémon Go continuously (n = 30) or intermittently (n = 31), while the control group (n = 33) did not use any after-school app. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance, and 2 repeated-measures ANOVA were performed to analyze the data. Results: Inactive adolescents in the continuous use group increased their physical activity between the pretest and posttest (P = .038), but this did not occur in the active group. Regarding body composition variables, the increase in body mass (P < .001) and body mass index (P = .006) in the control group was significantly higher than in the continuous use group of adolescents who were inactive, but not in the active group, while the decrease in fat mass (P < .001–.036) and sum of 3 skinfolds (P < .001–.003) was significantly higher in both Pokémon Go use groups as compared to the control group, regardless of the previous physical activity level. Conclusions: The continuous style of play seems to be more effective in increasing physical activity in adolescents, but the changes in body composition and kinanthropometric variables occur similarly with continuous and intermittent gameplay. Therefore, the playful use of Pokémon Go can be used in educational and health fields to produce changes in body composition in this population.

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Volume 20 (2023): Issue 7 (Jul 2023)

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Erratum. Sedentary Time and Prescription Medication Use Among US Adults: 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Sedentary Time and Prescription Medication Use Among US Adults: 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Ciarra A. Boyne, Tammie M. Johnson, Lindsay P. Toth, M. Ryan Richardson, and James R. Churilla

Background: Prescription medication usage has been used as a predictor of disease prevalence and overall health status. Evidence suggests an inverse relationship exists between polypharmacy, which is the use of 5 or more medications, and physical activity participation. However, there is limited evidence examining the relationship between sedentary time and polypharmacy in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary time and polypharmacy in a large nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: Study sample (N = 2879) included nonpregnant adult (≥20 y old) participants from the 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported minutes per day of sedentary time were converted to hours per day. The dependent variable was polypharmacy (≥5 medications). Results: Analysis revealed that for every hour of sedentary time, there was 4% greater odds of polypharmacy (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.07, P = .04) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, waist circumference, and the interaction term between race/ethnicity and education. Conclusion: Our findings suggest increased sedentary time is associated with an increased risk of polypharmacy among a large nationally representative sample of US adults.

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Uptake of a Universal Sports Subsidy Program for School-Aged Children: A Population Data Analysis

Rachel G. Curtis, Michelle Crisp, Simone Licari, Rosa Virgara, Catherine E.M. Simpson, and Carol A. Maher

Background: Around 40% of Australian children do not participate in sport. Cost is a major barrier to participation, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake of a population-level children’s sports subsidy scheme, including sociodemographic differences in uptake. Methods: A state-wide cross-sectional analysis comparing sports voucher claimants (primary school-aged children with a valid Medicare or Australian visa number) from the 2019 financial year with population census data from South Australia. Chi-square was used to examine whether the percentage of eligible children who claimed a voucher differed based on age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness. Subgroup analyses were conducted for the lowest 2 socioeconomic disadvantage deciles, split by gender. Scatterplots were used to compare sports between high and low SES children. Results: A total of 74,668 children claimed sports vouchers (45.5% of eligible children). Children who were relatively younger, female, from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and from major cities were least likely to claim the voucher. The 5 most common sports were Australian rules football (30.2%), netball (13.6%), soccer (13.1%), gymnastics (10.4%), and basketball (5.7%), with the popular sports similar for high and low SES children. Conclusions: Future work is needed to understand how Sports Voucher, and sport participation rates have changed over time, and to improve voucher uptake among girls, city dwellers, and low SES children.

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Association Between Sleep Time and Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Biomarkers Is Mediated by Abdominal Obesity Among Adolescents

Augusto César Ferreira De Moraes, Vanessa Cassia Medeiros-Oliveira, Katie Burford, Beatriz D. Schaan, Katia Bloch, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho, Felipe Vogt Cureau, and Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira

Objectives: Movement behaviors and abdominal obesity are associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers. However, the role of waist circumference as a mediating factor is still unknown. Thus, our aims were to (1) test the associations between 24-hour movement behavior variables (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep), abdominal obesity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers; and (2) investigate whether abdominal obesity had a mediating effect between the investigated associations. Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study included 3591 adolescents (aged 12–17 y) from 4 Brazilian cities. Waist circumference (in centimeters; at half the distance between the iliac crest and at the lower costal margin), 24-hour movement behaviors (validated questionnaire), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and adiponectin (serum plasma) were evaluated. We used multiple mediation regression models (95% confidence interval) to determine if waist circumference mediated the association between 24-hour movement behaviors and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Results: The results revealed that screen time and moderate to vigorous physical activity were not associated with pro- or anti-inflammatory biomarkers. However, sleep duration (in hours per day) was negatively associated with pro- (C-reactive protein, β = −0.08; 95% confidence interval, −0.38 to −0.02) and anti- (adiponectin, β = −0.31; 95% confidence interval, −2.13 to −0.12) inflammatory biomarkers. Our results also showed that waist circumference mediated the association between sleep duration and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (2.7%), and adiponectin (2.8%). Conclusion: Sleep duration was inversely associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and these relations were mediated by abdominal obesity. Therefore, adolescents having healthy sleep can have implications for reducing waist circumference and inflammatory indicators.

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Effect of Aerobic/Strength Training on RANKL Gene DNA Methylation Levels

Ameni Chelly, Amal Bouzid, Fadoua Neifar, Ines Kammoun, Adel Tekari, Saber Masmoudi, Hamdi Chtourou, and Ahmed Rebai

Background: The osteoclastogenesis RANKL gene plays a key role in bone remodeling. The hypomethylation of its promoter region may cause osteoporosis. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of physical activity on DNA methylation changes of RANKL promoter cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG)-rich region in active and sedentary adults and to assess the effect of aerobic and strength training on RANKL DNA methylation changes among Tunisian-North African adults. Methods: A total of 104 participants including 52 adults (58% males and 42% females) and 52 adults (31% males and 69% females) were recruited for the observational and interventional part of the study, respectively. The intervention consisted of 12 weeks of aerobic training (30 min/session) followed by 10 minutes of strengthening exercises. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and provided blood samples for quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The study revealed a significant difference (P = 6 × 10−10) in the methylation level of the RANKL promoter region between active and sedentary adults, with a 6.68-fold increase observed in the active group. After the intervention, both the trained (P = 41 × 10−5) and untrained (P = .002) groups displayed high methylation levels in the RANKL promoter region. In addition, the trained group exhibited significant improvements in heart rate (P = 2.2 × 10−16), blood pressure (P = 39 × 10−3), maximal oxygen uptake (P = 1.5 × 10−7), and fat mass (P = 7 × 10−4). Conclusion: Exploring epigenetic modifications in the RANKL promoter region may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of osteoporosis. This suggests that aerobic/strength training could potentially improve the bone system, reducing its vulnerability to osteoporosis by increasing RANKL DNA methylation.

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Neighborhood Places for Preschool Children’s Physical Activity: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Global Positioning System, Geographic Information Systems, and Accelerometry Data

Pulan Bai, Jasper Schipperijn, Michael Rosenberg, and Hayley Christian

Background: This study adds to the current literature by using a novel device-based method to explore where preschool children are physically active outside of home and childcare settings. This study combined accelerometry with geospatial data to explore the influence of the environment on preschool children’s physical activity by objectively identifying the locations where preschool children engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) within and outside of their neighborhood. Methods: Accelerometry, Global Positioning System, and Geographic Information Systems data from 168 preschool children aged 2–5 years were processed in ArcGIS Pro to identify locations (per 25 × 25-m fishnet cell) with high MVPA counts. Locations with high MVPA counts were defined as those with the top 20% of MVPA counts per fishnet cell. The land use for high MVPA count location was determined for 3 domains: <500 m from home, 500 to 1600 m from home, and >1600 m from home. Results: Locations with high MVPA counts <500 m from home were playgrounds (66.6%), schools (16.7%), and parks (16.7%). Locations with high MVPA counts 500 to 1600 m from home included playgrounds (33.3%), nonhome residential (29.6%), childcare centers (11.1%), and parks (3.7%). Locations with high MVPA counts >1600 m from home included nonhome residential (54.7%), sports and recreation centers (11.1%), playgrounds (6.8%), and parks (5.3%). Conclusions: Our findings highlight that local parks and playgrounds provide physical activity opportunities for preschool children, yet beyond the local neighborhood, the homes of others are important locations for preschool children to accumulate MVPA. These findings can be used to inform the design of current and future neighborhood places to better accommodate preschool children’s MVPA.

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The Epidemiology of Domain-Specific Physical Activity in New Zealand Adults: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey

Ryan Gage, Anja Mizdrak, Justin Richards, Adrian Bauman, Melissa Mcleod, Rhys Jones, Alistair Woodward, and Caroline Shaw

Background: Surveillance of domain-specific physical activity (PA) helps to target interventions to promote PA. We examined the sociodemographic correlates of domain-specific PA in New Zealand adults. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 13,887 adults completed the International PA Questionnaire–long form in 2019/20. Three measures of total and domain-specific (leisure, travel, home, and work) PA were calculated: (1) weekly participation, (2) mean weekly metabolic energy equivalent minutes (MET-min), and (3) median weekly MET-min among those who undertook PA. Results were weighted to the New Zealand adult population. Results: The average contribution of domain-specific activity to total PA was 37.5% for work activities (participation = 43.6%; median participating MET-min = 2790), 31.9% for home activities (participation = 82.2%; median participating MET-min = 1185), 19.4% for leisure activities (participation = 64.7%; median participating MET-min = 933), and 11.2% for travel activities (participation = 64.0%; median MET-min among participants = 495). Women accumulated more home PA and less work PA than men. Total PA was higher in middle-aged adults, with diverse patterns by age within domains. Māori accumulated less leisure PA than New Zealand Europeans but higher total PA. Asian groups reported lower PA across all domains. Higher area deprivation was negatively associated with leisure PA. Sociodemographic patterns varied by measure. For example, gender was not associated with total PA participation, but men accumulated higher MET-min when taking part in PA than women. Conclusions: Inequalities in PA varied by domain and sociodemographic group. These results should be used to inform interventions to improve PA.