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Erratum. Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Physical Education Exposure and Childhood Obesity

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Associations of Recreational and Nonrecreational Physical Activity and Body Weight Change on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality During the Obesogenic Transition in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study

Birinder S. Cheema, Zumin Shi, Rhiannon L. White, and Evan Atlantis

Background: To investigate cardiovascular disease mortality associated with longitudinal changes in body weight, and recreational and nonrecreational physical activity during the obesogenic transition in the United States since the 1970s. Methods: Data were analyzed from 4921 individuals aged 25–74 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1971 and 1979 and follow-up studies to 1992. Mortality was confirmed by searching the National Death Index or proxy interview; clinical data were collected in person. Changes in self-reported recreational and nonrecreational physical activity categories over time were coded as stable, increase, or decrease. Competing risks regression was used to determine hazard ratios adjusted for covariates. A logit model in a generalization method was used to explore mediation effects of change in body weight. Results: Compared with the “moderate–vigorous stable” group (reference), individuals who remained inactive (“inactive stable”) or reduced their participation in physical activity (“active to inactive”) experienced the highest mortality, with a 50% to 176% and 22% to 222% relative increased hazard ratios for nonrecreational and recreational physical activity, respectively, across all models adjusted for covariates. This corresponded to significant loss of life (up to 3 y; all P < .05). Individuals who became active (“inactive to active”) were not at increased risk. We found weak (but nonstatistically significant) evidence of mediation effects of body weight change on mortality. Conclusions: Longitudinal changes in moderate–vigorous recreational and nonrecreational physical activity were important predictors of cardiovascular disease mortality during the obesogenic transition period in the United States and were mostly unexplained by changes in body weight.

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Trajectories of Device-Measured Physical Activity During Early Childhood and Its Determinants: Findings From the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

Debora Tornquist, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Luciana Tornquist, Grégore I. Mielke, Ulf Ekelund, Joseph Murray, and Marlos R. Domingues

Background: The objective was to describe trajectories of physical activity (PA) measured by accelerometry during early childhood and to test associations with sociodemographic, gestational, maternal, and perinatal determinants. Methods: Data from 1798 children from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed. PA was measured with wrist accelerometers at 1, 2, and 4 years. PA trajectories were estimated using group-based trajectory modeling, and associations with determinants were tested using Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Two trajectories were identified: Moderate and high PA, both showing a linear increase in PA in the first years but differing in volume. Girls (prevalence ratio [PR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88–0.94), highly educated mothers (PR: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88–0.97), and high birth weight children (PR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85–0.97) showed less probability of high PA trajectory. Birth order ≥3 (PR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11) was associated with higher likelihood of high PA trajectory. Conclusions: Children showed an increase in PA during the first years, with 2 trajectories that differ in PA levels. Female sex, high maternal schooling, and high birth weight reduced the probability of having a high PA trajectory, while higher birth order increased this probability. These characteristics should be considered when planning PA interventions for children in early childhood.

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Behavioral Determinants of Physical Activity Among Secondary School Students Aged 14–15 Years in Cambodia

Kurusart Konharn, Suvannetra Po, Jirachai Karawa, Paramaporn Sangpara, and Lee David Johnson

Background: There is little known about physical activity (PA) behaviors and its determinants in Cambodian adolescents, particularly with regard to the home and school settings. Therefore, we aimed to investigate these behaviors and determinants on their PA. Methods: The samples collected were from 168 high school students, aged 14–15 years. They were requested to complete the self-report PA questionnaire. Time spent in PA during weekday and weekend by school location and gender, and determinants on PA were analyzed. Differences in the mean values of the PA levels (in minutes) during weekday and the weekend between genders, and between school locations were analyzed using independent sample t tests. The percentage of students’ perceptions on the determinants were calculated. Chi-squared test was used to compare the differences in prevalence of students’ activities during their free time with respect to school location and gender. Results: The majority of the parents (86.9%–98.2%) demonstrated strong support for their children for academic work. Rural students spent an average time of moderate-to-vigorous PA greater than their counterparts from the urban areas during their weekend days (329.1 vs 239.2 min, respectively). Moderate to vigorous PA was likely to be higher during the weekends compared with weekdays among the boys (387.9 vs 361.4 min, respectively). Girls were more likely to spend their time on moderate to vigorous PA during the weekdays compared with the weekends (205.4 vs 180.5 min, respectively). Conclusion: Consideration should be given to gender, school location, free time, and the environmental setting for the contextualization of more effective PA interventions with Cambodian youths.

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Influence of Pokémon Go Playing Style on Physical Activity and Its Effect on Kinanthropometry Variables and Body Composition in Adolescents

Adrián Mateo-Orcajada, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal, and Lucía Abenza-Cano

Background: Pokémon Go is a mobile app that offers both continuous and intermittent (gamified) gameplay, but no previous research in adolescents is known to have addressed changes in physical activity and body composition according to playing style. For this reason, the aims of the present investigation were (1) to establish the differences in the level of physical activity, and its influence on the kinanthropometric and body composition, of the adolescent population, considering their Pokémon Go playing style; and (2) to analyze whether the practice of previous physical activity has an influence on the effects of the use of Pokémon Go on the level of physical activity and changes in kinanthropometric and body composition variables. Methods: A total of 94 adolescents (50 males and 44 females; mean age: 13.66 [1.17] years-old; mean body mass index: 20.82 [4.03] kg/m2) whose physical activity level and body composition were measured, participated in the investigation. Two groups of adolescents completed a 10-week intervention using Pokémon Go continuously (n = 30) or intermittently (n = 31), while the control group (n = 33) did not use any after-school app. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate analysis of variance, and 2 repeated-measures ANOVA were performed to analyze the data. Results: Inactive adolescents in the continuous use group increased their physical activity between the pretest and posttest (P = .038), but this did not occur in the active group. Regarding body composition variables, the increase in body mass (P < .001) and body mass index (P = .006) in the control group was significantly higher than in the continuous use group of adolescents who were inactive, but not in the active group, while the decrease in fat mass (P < .001–.036) and sum of 3 skinfolds (P < .001–.003) was significantly higher in both Pokémon Go use groups as compared to the control group, regardless of the previous physical activity level. Conclusions: The continuous style of play seems to be more effective in increasing physical activity in adolescents, but the changes in body composition and kinanthropometric variables occur similarly with continuous and intermittent gameplay. Therefore, the playful use of Pokémon Go can be used in educational and health fields to produce changes in body composition in this population.

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Volume 20 (2023): Issue 7 (Jul 2023)

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Erratum. Sedentary Time and Prescription Medication Use Among US Adults: 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Sedentary Time and Prescription Medication Use Among US Adults: 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Ciarra A. Boyne, Tammie M. Johnson, Lindsay P. Toth, M. Ryan Richardson, and James R. Churilla

Background: Prescription medication usage has been used as a predictor of disease prevalence and overall health status. Evidence suggests an inverse relationship exists between polypharmacy, which is the use of 5 or more medications, and physical activity participation. However, there is limited evidence examining the relationship between sedentary time and polypharmacy in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary time and polypharmacy in a large nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: Study sample (N = 2879) included nonpregnant adult (≥20 y old) participants from the 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported minutes per day of sedentary time were converted to hours per day. The dependent variable was polypharmacy (≥5 medications). Results: Analysis revealed that for every hour of sedentary time, there was 4% greater odds of polypharmacy (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.07, P = .04) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, waist circumference, and the interaction term between race/ethnicity and education. Conclusion: Our findings suggest increased sedentary time is associated with an increased risk of polypharmacy among a large nationally representative sample of US adults.

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Uptake of a Universal Sports Subsidy Program for School-Aged Children: A Population Data Analysis

Rachel G. Curtis, Michelle Crisp, Simone Licari, Rosa Virgara, Catherine E.M. Simpson, and Carol A. Maher

Background: Around 40% of Australian children do not participate in sport. Cost is a major barrier to participation, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake of a population-level children’s sports subsidy scheme, including sociodemographic differences in uptake. Methods: A state-wide cross-sectional analysis comparing sports voucher claimants (primary school-aged children with a valid Medicare or Australian visa number) from the 2019 financial year with population census data from South Australia. Chi-square was used to examine whether the percentage of eligible children who claimed a voucher differed based on age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness. Subgroup analyses were conducted for the lowest 2 socioeconomic disadvantage deciles, split by gender. Scatterplots were used to compare sports between high and low SES children. Results: A total of 74,668 children claimed sports vouchers (45.5% of eligible children). Children who were relatively younger, female, from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and from major cities were least likely to claim the voucher. The 5 most common sports were Australian rules football (30.2%), netball (13.6%), soccer (13.1%), gymnastics (10.4%), and basketball (5.7%), with the popular sports similar for high and low SES children. Conclusions: Future work is needed to understand how Sports Voucher, and sport participation rates have changed over time, and to improve voucher uptake among girls, city dwellers, and low SES children.

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Association Between Sleep Time and Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Biomarkers Is Mediated by Abdominal Obesity Among Adolescents

Augusto César Ferreira De Moraes, Vanessa Cassia Medeiros-Oliveira, Katie Burford, Beatriz D. Schaan, Katia Bloch, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho, Felipe Vogt Cureau, and Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira

Objectives: Movement behaviors and abdominal obesity are associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers. However, the role of waist circumference as a mediating factor is still unknown. Thus, our aims were to (1) test the associations between 24-hour movement behavior variables (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep), abdominal obesity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers; and (2) investigate whether abdominal obesity had a mediating effect between the investigated associations. Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study included 3591 adolescents (aged 12–17 y) from 4 Brazilian cities. Waist circumference (in centimeters; at half the distance between the iliac crest and at the lower costal margin), 24-hour movement behaviors (validated questionnaire), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and adiponectin (serum plasma) were evaluated. We used multiple mediation regression models (95% confidence interval) to determine if waist circumference mediated the association between 24-hour movement behaviors and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Results: The results revealed that screen time and moderate to vigorous physical activity were not associated with pro- or anti-inflammatory biomarkers. However, sleep duration (in hours per day) was negatively associated with pro- (C-reactive protein, β = −0.08; 95% confidence interval, −0.38 to −0.02) and anti- (adiponectin, β = −0.31; 95% confidence interval, −2.13 to −0.12) inflammatory biomarkers. Our results also showed that waist circumference mediated the association between sleep duration and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (2.7%), and adiponectin (2.8%). Conclusion: Sleep duration was inversely associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and these relations were mediated by abdominal obesity. Therefore, adolescents having healthy sleep can have implications for reducing waist circumference and inflammatory indicators.