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The Role of the Type of Sport in the Effects of the Jigsaw Method on Students’ Motivation and Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Physical Education

Océane Cochon Drouet, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Cédric Roure, and Nicolas Margas

Purpose: Jigsaw is a popular cooperative method, but its effect on students’ motivation in physical education (PE) remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to estimate this Jigsaw effect and to explore whether the type of sport taught in PE modified this effect. Method: Overall, 136 middle-school students participated in two PE sequences in Jigsaw or control conditions, one in gymnastics and one in racket sports. These two types of sports were selected because they are frequently taught in PE and for their opposing characteristics. Students’ motivation was estimated during the third and sixth lessons of each sequence with a subjective measure, that is, situational interest; moderate to vigorous physical activity was added as an objective measure related to motivation. Results: Compared to control conditions, Jigsaw progressively enhanced moderate to vigorous physical activity and the novelty dimension of situational interest in gymnastics, whereas it undermined moderate to vigorous physical activity and the challenge dimension of situational interest in rackets. Discussion: We discuss the decisive role of the type of sport according to their characteristics when implementing Jigsaw.

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Evaluating the Content Knowledge of Preservice Physical Education Teachers

Phillip Ward, Won Seok Chey, and Kyuil Cho

Purpose: We examined the variables of common content knowledge, specialized content knowledge, and performance that preservice teachers had acquired from their K–12 physical education and extracurricular experiences and the effects of a content course on improving their content knowledge and performance. Method: Nineteen preservice teachers were assessed during a half a semester long content course using pre- and posttests of common content knowledge, soccer performance, and two specialized content knowledge variables: instructional tasks and error analysis. Relationships between experience in playing and coaching for each assessment were conducted. Data are reported descriptively and inferentially. Results: Preservice teachers had poor pretest scores on all variables except performance. Posttest scores following the content class showed substantive, highly significant relationships with large effect sizes. Yet, the levels obtained were less than desirable for all common content knowledge and specialized content knowledge variables, except performance. A number of relationships were found between experience and the measures. Discussion/Conclusion: Our results suggest that more research needs to be conducted on the design of content courses in physical education teacher education.

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Adapted Physical Educators’ Experiences With School Administration and Marginalization

Scott W.T. McNamara, Kevin Andrew Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Sarena Abdallah, and Lauren Hill

Background: While preliminary research has indicated that adapted physical education (APE) teachers experience marginalization, little research has examined how specific relationships factor into these experiences. Purpose: This study sought to examine APE teachers’ experiences and perceptions of school administrators. Methodology: Occupational socialization theory was used to guide semistructured interviews with 24 APE teachers about their relationship with administrators. Results: A collaborative approach to qualitative data analysis was used to construct four themes: (a) APE teachers are socialized to be marginal and settle for inadequate support; (b) negative impressions of general physical education led to a similar outlook on APE; (c) administrators focus on compliance with mandates over quality practice in APE; and (d) support depends on administrative effort, and many administrators look uncomfortable in the gym. Conclusion: Although these findings shed light on the complex, and often absent, relationship between APE teachers and their administrators, still additional research is needed.

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What Recess Policy? Assessing Arizona Schools’ Adherence to Senate Bill 1083

Janelle Griffo, Kahyun Nam, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Kulinna, and Allison Ross

Children’s health is affected by physical activity (PA) opportunities throughout the school day. Schools are a central venue for children meeting physical activity recommendations, and multiple areas, such as recess, have been established to protect against childhood obesity and overweight. Senate Bill 1083 is a law that addresses recess policies in Arizona that calls for students in Grades K–5 receive at least two recess periods per day. The purposes of this study were to explore Arizona charter and public elementary (K–5) school’s adherence to Senate Bill 1083 as well as investigate the barriers, if any, to implementing recess. A modified version of the School Physical Activity Policy Assessment survey was administered to members of the Arizona Health and Physical Education organization. Findings from the survey show that Arizona schools are not providing the recommended number of recess periods per day, and there are multiple barriers to recess implementation. Further investigations and bill modifications are needed.

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“Go Where the Big Challenges Are”: Preservice Physical Educators as Change Agents

Corrine M. Wickens and Jenny Parker

Purpose: This study explored the tensions around physical and literacy integration initiatives from the view of physical education teacher education candidates. Method: We situated our data collection in qualitative case study methodology, emphasizing data from focus group interviews conducted during the final month of physical education teacher education candidates’ programs. Results: We demonstrated candidates’ recognition of the role of literacy integration within physical education in relation to (a) candidates’ feelings of pride and defensiveness of their field, (b) the importance of teacher collaboration, (c) teachers’ responsibility to support school goals and the students themselves, and (d) the potential of candidates to become change agents and leaders in their future school environments. Discussion/Conclusion : We assert that collaboration is required, and it must transpire within and among multiple educational contexts spaces, including K–12 settings, among teacher education faculty and programs, and across K–12 and higher education divides.

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Effectiveness of a Whole-of-School Approach in Promoting Physical Activity for Children: Evidence From Cohort Study in Primary Schools in Thailand

Piyawat Katewongsa, Panya Choolers, Pairoj Saonuam, and Dyah Anantalia Widyastari

Purpose: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a whole-of-school approach by using the 4PC model (Active Policy, Active People, Active Program, Active Place, and Active Classroom) in improving physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior of school children in Thailand. Method: We employed a quasi-experimental cohort design in which the intervention group was exposed to the 4PC model and control schools performed their regular routine. We followed the same students from 10 participating schools over a 2-year academic period (2017–2019) from primary school Grades 4–6. A total of 119 of 184 students in the intervention group, and 173 of 254 students in the control group were present in all five rounds of data collection and are included in the analysis. Results: Compared to students in the control group without the 4PC exposure, students in the intervention group accumulated an additional 19–25 min of physical activity time and experienced a 31-min reduction in sedentary time. Conclusion: As a whole-of-school approach, the 4PC model was effective in increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior of primary school children in Thailand.

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Impact of Embedding High-Intensity Interval Training in Schools and Sports Training on Children and Adolescent’s Cardiometabolic Health and Health-Related Fitness: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Narelle Eather, Mark Babic, Nicholas Riley, Sarah A. Costigan, and David R. Lubans

Purpose: This systematic review aimed to identify studies evaluating the impact of high-intensity interval training when delivered in school and sports training. Methods: A systematic search of 10 databases (September 2019) identified 24 eligible studies (including children and/or adolescents 5–18 years and reporting cardiometabolic health and/or health-related fitness outcomes), assessed for quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool (version 2.0). Outcomes were synthesized using a random-effects meta-analysis, and potential moderators were explored (i.e., study duration, risk of bias, age, and deliverer/instructor). Results: Standardized mean difference for the effects of high-intensity interval training were significant for body mass index g = −0.27 (p < .001), cardiorespiratory fitness g = 0.27 (p < .001), lower body muscular fitness g = 0.49 (p = .005), and upper body muscular fitness g = 0.37 (p = .002); but not for blood pressure (p > .05). Risk of bias results were variable (low = 8, some concerns = 9, and high = 7). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that embedding high-intensity interval training in schools and sports training can facilitate improvements in some aspects of cardiometabolic health and fitness in children and adolescents.

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A Retrospective Study on Students’ Perceived Experiences in Physical Education: Exploring Beliefs, Emotions, and Physical Activity Outcomes

Kelly L. Simonton, Nicholas Washburn, Laura F. Prior, Victoria N. Shiver, Sean Fullerton, and Karen L. Gaudreault

Purpose: This study utilized the control-value theory of achievement emotions to investigate relationships between retroactive physical education (PE) beliefs and emotions with adulthood physical activity (PA) attitudes and behaviors. Method: An exploratory structural equation model was employed to evaluate participants’ (N = 381) PE emotions, antecedents, and outcomes. Results: Control, intrinsic value, and extrinsic value antecedents predicted several emotions. PE enjoyment facilitated positive PA attitudes, whereas boredom and shame predicted negative PA attitudes. Shame predicted lower physical self-concept in students. Moderate to vigorous PA was traced positively with enjoyment and negatively from relief. Several indirect relationships were also observed that further support the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Conclusions: Emotions are a response to learning and finding value in PE, which clearly impacts PA-related beliefs and behaviors into adulthood. Considerations on the externally driven nature of PE outcomes (i.e., standards/performance) are needed given the juxtaposition for also targeting suggested goals like intrinsic value and enjoyment.

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Erratum. Preparing Preservice Teachers via Teaching Methods Courses: A Literature Review

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Measuring the Concurrent Validity of the Athletic Skills Track Using Expert Judgment

Johanna E.A. Brocken, John van der Kamp, Rene Wormhoudt, Matthieu L. Lenoir, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

Purpose: The aim of this study is to measure the concurrent validity of the Athletic Skills Track (AST) by examining whether its outcome score correlates with the holistic judgments of experts about the quality of movement. Method: Video recordings of children performing the AST were shown to physical education teachers who independently gave a holistic rating of the movement quality of each child. Results: Both intra- and interrater reliability of the teachers’ ratings were moderate to good. The holistic judgments on movement quality were significantly correlated with AST time, showing that higher ratings were associated with less time required to complete the track. Next, hierarchical stepwise regression indicated that in addition to the holistic rating, also age, but not gender, explained part of the variance in AST time. Conclusion: The findings show that the AST has good concurrent validity and provides a fast, indirect indication for quality of movement.