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Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Assessment of Physical Activity in Frail Older People into Simplified Chinese Using Cognitive Interviewing Methodology

YueLin Li, LinYu Lyu, Xing Fan, LiJuan Xu, RuoRan Zhao, YuBo Jiang, Jisu Seo, CaiFu Li, and Rhayun Song

The Assessment of Physical Activity in Frail Older People (APAFOP) is a patient-reported outcome measure assessing physical activity among community-dwelling older adults. However, this instrument has not been verified in the Chinese context. Thus, we translated the APAFOP into Chinese and then linguistically validated the Chinese version of APAFOP (APAFOP-C) by following the guidelines developed by Beaton and Willis. The translation process took 6 months. We identified nine translation issues in the translation process, of which experiential equivalence issues were the most frequent. It took three rounds of cognitive interviews to achieve linguistic validity, and the most significant issues were related to the layout of the questionnaire identified during the cognitive interview. In conclusion, the items of the APAFOP-C were considered comprehensive and relevant to assessing the physical activities of frail older adults in China. This study has laid the foundation for future evaluation of its measurement properties.

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Wrist-Worn Accelerometry, Aging, and Gait Speed in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Amal A. Wanigatunga, Fangyu Liu, Jacek K. Urbanek, Hang Wang, Junrui Di, Vadim Zipunnikov, Yurun Cai, Ryan J. Dougherty, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Luigi Ferrucci, and Jennifer A. Schrack

Wrist-worn accelerometry metrics are not well defined in older adults. Accelerometry data from 720 participants (mean age 70 years, 55% women) were summarized into (a) total activity counts per day, (b) active minutes per day, (c) active bouts per day, and (d) activity fragmentation (the reciprocal of the mean active bout length). Linear regression and mixed-effects models were utilized to estimate associations between age and gait speed with wrist accelerometry. Activity counts per day, daily active minutes per day, and active bouts per day were negatively associated with age among all participants, while positive associations with activity fragmentation were only observed among those ≥65 years. More activity counts, more daily active minutes, and lower activity fragmentation were associated with faster gait speed. There were baseline age interactions with annual changes in total activity counts per day, active minutes per day, and activity fragmentation (Baseline age × Time, p < .01 for all). These results help define and characterize changes in wrist-based physical activity patterns among older adults.

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The 180° Turn Phase of the Timed Up and Go Test Better Predicts History of Falls in the Oldest-Old When Compared With the Full Test: A Case-Control Study

Fabiane de Oliveira Brauner, Anelise Ineu Figueiredo, Matheus de Souza Urbanetto, Rafael Reimann Baptista, Aniuska Schiavo, and Régis Gemerasca Mestriner

The 180° turn phase of the test may better differentiate the oldest-old regarding their history of falls. This is a case-control study designed to detect the ability of the 180° turn timed up and go (TUG) phase to detect a history of falls in the oldest-old. Sixty people aged 85 years and older were assessed in their homes. The single-task and dual-task TUG tests were performed using an inertial sensor (G-Walk). Sociodemographic data, physical activity levels, mental status, depressive symptoms, concern for falls occurrence, number of medicines in use, self-perception of balance, and the functional reach test were also assessed. The logistic regressions revealed the 180° turn phase of both the single-task and dual-task TUG was almost three times better than the full TUG test to detect a history of falls, thus providing insights that can be used to better assess functional mobility in the oldest-old.

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Volume 30 (2022): Issue 5 (Oct 2022)

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The Effect of Age and Fall History on Lower Extremity Neuromuscular Function During Descent of a Single Transition Step

Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan, Brooke A. Slavens, and Stephen C. Cobb

Despite the higher injury rate of falls on steps versus level ground, few studies have examined the influence of age and fall history on step descent. The purpose of this study was to determine the lead and trail limb neuromuscular function (peak joint moments and powers, electromyographic activity) differences between young females (n = 15) and older females with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) a fall history while descending a single step. Trail limb moments and powers did not differ between groups. Lead limb sagittal plane powers at the hip and knee were greater in the young adults. Electromyographic co-activation levels (knee and ankle) were not significantly different between groups. However, peroneal activation was greater in the older groups, which may have assisted in stabilizing the ankle joint in lieu of increased co-activation at the ankle. These results demonstrate consideration of step descent is important in working with older women at risk of falls.

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Erratum. The Effect of Age and Fall History on Lower Extremity Neuromuscular Function During Descent of a Single Transition Step

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Online Exercise Programming Among Older Adults: A Scoping Review

Matthieu Dagenais, Olivia Parker, Sarah Galway, and Kimberley Gammage

Online exercise programming may promote physical activity while at home, but little is known about its use among older adults. Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework, we describe the nature and extent of the research pertaining to the use of online exercise programming among adults 65 years of age and older. We ran two separate searches (January 2005–September 2020 and October 2020–October 2021), yielding 17 articles that met our inclusion criteria. A total of 1,767 participants (69% female) ranging from 65 to 94 years of age were included. Most studies delivered the online programs asynchronously. The majority of studies assessed the feasibility of online programs, with 14 studies investigating health-related outcomes such as physical, psychological, and social health. Future research should explore perceptions and experiences of online exercise programming among older adults and the mechanisms by which it impacts physical, psychological, social, and behavioral outcomes.

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Physical Activity Intensity of Singles and Doubles Pickleball in Older Adults

Sandra C. Webber, Scott Anderson, Logan Biccum, Sava Jin, Shahd Khawashki, and Brenda J. Tittlemier

The purpose of this study was to measure heart rate, activity intensity, and steps in recreational singles and doubles pickleball players. We collected data in 22 singles and 31 doubles players (62.1 ± 9.7 years of age) using Garmin Fenix 5 watches (Garmin International, Inc.) and ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph LLC) accelerometers. Mean heart rates during singles and doubles were 111.6 ± 13.5 and 111.5 ± 16.2 beats/min (70.3% and 71.2% of predicted maximum heart rate), respectively. Over 70% of singles and doubles playing time was categorized in moderate to vigorous heart rate zones whereas 80.5% of singles time and 50.4% of doubles time were moderate based on Freedson accelerometer cut-points. Steps per hour were higher in singles versus doubles (3,322 ± 493 vs. 2,791 ± 359), t(51) = 4.540, p < .001. Singles and doubles pickleball are moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities that can contribute substantially toward older adults meeting physical activity guidelines.

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Strength and Balance in Recreational Golfers and Non-Golfers Aged 65–79 Years in Community Settings

David A. Wilson, Simon Brown, Paul E. Muckelt, Martin B. Warner, Sandra Agyapong-Badu, Danny Glover, Andrew D. Murray, Roger A. Hawkes, and Maria Stokes

Inactive older adults tend to have decreased strength and balance compared with their more active peers. Playing golf has the potential to improve strength and balance in older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the strength and balance of recreational golfers with non-golfers, aged 65–79 years. Grip strength, single leg balance, and Y Balance Test (YBT) were assessed. Golfers (n = 57) had significantly (right, p = .042; left, p = .047) higher maximal grip strength, than non-golfers (n = 17). Single leg stance times were significantly longer in golfers (right, p = .021; left, p = .001). Normalized YBT reach distances were significantly greater for golfers than non-golfers for composite, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions on both right and left legs. Playing golf appears to be associated with better grip and both static and dynamic balance in 65–79 year olds, indicating that a study of the effects of playing golf is warranted through a larger, fully powered, longitudinal study.

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Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities for Brazilian Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

Andrea Golin, Elisa de Carvalho Costa, Iramaia Salomão Alexandre de Assis, Marina Portugal Makhoul, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) is not available to Portuguese-Brazil. This study translates, cross-culturally adapts, and validates the PASIPD for Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The translation process followed guidelines: initial translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee, and pretest. The validation and reliability processes were conducted with 40 individuals (15 men and 25 women) with Parkinson’s disease. Concurrent validity was evaluated between PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Human Activity Profile. PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese was found to be moderately correlated with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (r = .474, p < .05); however, there was no correlation with Human Activity Profile (r = .271, p < .05). We used the intrarater reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient and test–retest. Intrarater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = .80). Internal consistency was considered adequate by Cronbach’s alpha (α = .70). PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating physical activity levels in Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease.