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Volume 30 (2022): Issue 5 (Oct 2022)

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The Effect of Age and Fall History on Lower Extremity Neuromuscular Function During Descent of a Single Transition Step

Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan, Brooke A. Slavens, and Stephen C. Cobb

Despite the higher injury rate of falls on steps versus level ground, few studies have examined the influence of age and fall history on step descent. The purpose of this study was to determine the lead and trail limb neuromuscular function (peak joint moments and powers, electromyographic activity) differences between young females (n = 15) and older females with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) a fall history while descending a single step. Trail limb moments and powers did not differ between groups. Lead limb sagittal plane powers at the hip and knee were greater in the young adults. Electromyographic co-activation levels (knee and ankle) were not significantly different between groups. However, peroneal activation was greater in the older groups, which may have assisted in stabilizing the ankle joint in lieu of increased co-activation at the ankle. These results demonstrate consideration of step descent is important in working with older women at risk of falls.

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Erratum. The Effect of Age and Fall History on Lower Extremity Neuromuscular Function During Descent of a Single Transition Step

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Online Exercise Programming Among Older Adults: A Scoping Review

Matthieu Dagenais, Olivia Parker, Sarah Galway, and Kimberley Gammage

Online exercise programming may promote physical activity while at home, but little is known about its use among older adults. Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework, we describe the nature and extent of the research pertaining to the use of online exercise programming among adults 65 years of age and older. We ran two separate searches (January 2005–September 2020 and October 2020–October 2021), yielding 17 articles that met our inclusion criteria. A total of 1,767 participants (69% female) ranging from 65 to 94 years of age were included. Most studies delivered the online programs asynchronously. The majority of studies assessed the feasibility of online programs, with 14 studies investigating health-related outcomes such as physical, psychological, and social health. Future research should explore perceptions and experiences of online exercise programming among older adults and the mechanisms by which it impacts physical, psychological, social, and behavioral outcomes.

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Physical Activity Intensity of Singles and Doubles Pickleball in Older Adults

Sandra C. Webber, Scott Anderson, Logan Biccum, Sava Jin, Shahd Khawashki, and Brenda J. Tittlemier

The purpose of this study was to measure heart rate, activity intensity, and steps in recreational singles and doubles pickleball players. We collected data in 22 singles and 31 doubles players (62.1 ± 9.7 years of age) using Garmin Fenix 5 watches (Garmin International, Inc.) and ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph LLC) accelerometers. Mean heart rates during singles and doubles were 111.6 ± 13.5 and 111.5 ± 16.2 beats/min (70.3% and 71.2% of predicted maximum heart rate), respectively. Over 70% of singles and doubles playing time was categorized in moderate to vigorous heart rate zones whereas 80.5% of singles time and 50.4% of doubles time were moderate based on Freedson accelerometer cut-points. Steps per hour were higher in singles versus doubles (3,322 ± 493 vs. 2,791 ± 359), t(51) = 4.540, p < .001. Singles and doubles pickleball are moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities that can contribute substantially toward older adults meeting physical activity guidelines.

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Strength and Balance in Recreational Golfers and Non-Golfers Aged 65–79 Years in Community Settings

David A. Wilson, Simon Brown, Paul E. Muckelt, Martin B. Warner, Sandra Agyapong-Badu, Danny Glover, Andrew D. Murray, Roger A. Hawkes, and Maria Stokes

Inactive older adults tend to have decreased strength and balance compared with their more active peers. Playing golf has the potential to improve strength and balance in older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the strength and balance of recreational golfers with non-golfers, aged 65–79 years. Grip strength, single leg balance, and Y Balance Test (YBT) were assessed. Golfers (n = 57) had significantly (right, p = .042; left, p = .047) higher maximal grip strength, than non-golfers (n = 17). Single leg stance times were significantly longer in golfers (right, p = .021; left, p = .001). Normalized YBT reach distances were significantly greater for golfers than non-golfers for composite, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions on both right and left legs. Playing golf appears to be associated with better grip and both static and dynamic balance in 65–79 year olds, indicating that a study of the effects of playing golf is warranted through a larger, fully powered, longitudinal study.

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Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities for Brazilian Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

Andrea Golin, Elisa de Carvalho Costa, Iramaia Salomão Alexandre de Assis, Marina Portugal Makhoul, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) is not available to Portuguese-Brazil. This study translates, cross-culturally adapts, and validates the PASIPD for Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The translation process followed guidelines: initial translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee, and pretest. The validation and reliability processes were conducted with 40 individuals (15 men and 25 women) with Parkinson’s disease. Concurrent validity was evaluated between PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Human Activity Profile. PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese was found to be moderately correlated with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (r = .474, p < .05); however, there was no correlation with Human Activity Profile (r = .271, p < .05). We used the intrarater reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient and test–retest. Intrarater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = .80). Internal consistency was considered adequate by Cronbach’s alpha (α = .70). PASIPD to Brazilian Portuguese is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating physical activity levels in Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

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“I Hear the Music and My Spirits Lift!” Pleasure and Ballroom Dancing for Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Sarah R. Chipperfield and Paul Bissell

Physical activity for older adults is recommended to encourage the maintenance of functional autonomy and improve mental health. Ballroom dancing involves aerobic, strength, and balance work and is an inherently a social activity. This 12-month qualitative study considered the influence of ballroom dancing on health and well-being in community-dwelling older adults. It explores an underreported aspect of physical activity, which may incentivize older people to participate, that is, pleasure. Qualitative data were managed and analyzed using the Framework Analysis approach. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 26 older adult ballroom dancers. Five typologies of pleasure were identified. In addition to “sensual pleasure,” “pleasure of habitual action,” and “pleasure of immersion,” as suggested by Phoenix and Orr, the “pleasure of practice” and “pleasure of community” were also identified. Ballroom dancing produces a strong sense of embodied pleasure for older adults and should be promoted by health and exercise professionals for community-dwelling older adults.

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Virtual Special Issue: Tai Chi

Samuel R. Nyman

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Physical Activity in People With Dementia Living in Long-Term Care Facilities and the Connection With Environmental Factors and Behavior

Suzanne Portegijs, Sandra van Beek, Lilian H.D. van Tuyl, and Cordula Wagner

This study is conducted in order to gain a better understanding of the relationship between physical activity and agitated behavior among older people with dementia, and physical activity and characteristics of long-term care wards. Data were collected among people with dementia living in long-term care facilities (N = 76) by conducting observations at the wards and distributing questionnaires among professional caregivers. The results show that participants are largely inactive (82.8%) and a significant relation was found between the degree of physical activity and characteristics of the ward such as “taking sufficient time,” which relates to the time caregivers take when interacting with residents. This study supports the existing knowledge about the degree of physical activity among people with dementia in long-term care and adds information about the potential influence of organizational factors that could be valuable for daily practice.