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Volume 43 (2021): Issue 2 (Apr 2021)

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Coding Body Language in Sports: The Nonverbal Behavior Coding System for Soccer Penalties

Philip Furley and Alexander Roth

Nonverbal behavior (NVB) plays an important role in sports. However, it has been difficult to measure, as no coding schemes exist to objectively measure NVB in sports. Therefore, the authors adapted the Body Action and Posture Coding System to the context of soccer penalties, validated it, and initially used this system (Nonverbal Behavior Coding System for Soccer Penalties [NBCSP]) to explore NVB in penalties. Study 1 demonstrated that the NBCSP had good to excellent intercoder reliability regarding the occurrence and temporal precision of NVBs. It also showed that the coding system could differentiate certain postures and behaviors as a function of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs. negative emotional states). Study 2 identified differences in NVB for successful and missed shots in a sample of penalties (time spent looking toward the goal, toward the ground, right arm movement, and how upright the body posture was). The authors discuss the utility of the coding system for different sport contexts.

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Context Affects Quiet Eye Duration and Motor Performance Independent of Cognitive Effort

Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North

Extensive literature has shown the effect of “quiet eye” (QE) on motor performance. However, little attention has been paid to the context in which tasks are executed (independent of anxiety) and the mechanisms that underpin the phenomenon. Here, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of context (independent of anxiety) on QE and performance while examining if the mechanisms underpinning QE are rooted in cognitive effort. In this study, 21 novice participants completed golf putts while pupil dilation, QE duration, and putting accuracy were measured. Results showed that putting to win was more accurate compared with the control (no context) condition, and QE duration was longer when putting to win or tie a hole compared with control. There was no effect of context on pupil dilation. Results suggest that, while the task was challenging, performance scenarios can enhance representativeness of practice without adding additional load to cognitive resources, even for novice performers.

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Pleasant Emotions Widen Thought–Action Repertoires, Develop Long-Term Resources, and Improve Reaction Time Performance: A Multistudy Examination of the Broaden-and-Build Theory Among Athletes

Mark A. Thompson, Adam R. Nicholls, John Toner, John L. Perry, and Rachel Burke

The authors investigated relationships between emotions, coping, and resilience across two studies. In Study 1a, 319 athletes completed dispositional questionnaires relating to the aforementioned constructs. In Study 1b, 126 athletes from Study 1a repeated the same questionnaires 6 months later. In Study 2, 21 athletes were randomly allocated to an emotional (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant emotions) or control group and undertook a laboratory-based reaction-time task across three time points. Questionnaires and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after each performance with imagery-based emotional manipulations engendered during the second testing session. Partial longitudinal evidence of the broaden-and-build effects of pleasant emotions was found. Pleasant emotions may undo lingering cognitive resource losses incurred from previous unpleasant emotional experiences. In Study 2, pleasant and unpleasant emotions had an immediate and sustained psychophysiological and performance impact. Taken together, this research supports the application of broaden-and-build theory in framing emotional interventions for athletes.

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Using Critical Incident Technique to Investigate Anxiety in Physical Activity Settings

Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon

Physical activity participation is linked with many benefits including a reduction in anxiety; it is, however, also important to explore aspects of activity that incite anxiety. One way to investigate sources of anxiety in physical activity is to use the critical incident technique (CIT). The purpose of this study was to explore anxiety-inducing events in physical activity settings and to evaluate the impact on future behavior. A total of 122 participants (M = 21.23 ± 1.77 years) completed an online survey asking when a physical activity setting incited anxiety using the CIT. Four common sources of anxiety were evident in the responses: fragile self-beliefs, social interaction and the threat of negative social evaluation, competition, and a lack of knowledge or unfamiliarity with surroundings. Tenets from achievement goal theory can help to explain the incitement of anxiety and can help shape physical activity settings to be more inclusive and welcoming for all.

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Development and Validation of the Diet-Related Beliefs of Exercisers Scale

Simone Dohle, Mitch J. Duncan, and Tamara Bucher

Many exercise-based weight-loss interventions result in considerably less weight loss than predicted. One possible explanation could be that people have certain beliefs about the interplay of exercise and food that also influence their eating behavior, such as the belief that food is a reward for exercise. The current research outlines a systematic multiphase process to develop a psychometrically sound scale to assess these beliefs. In Study 1, regular exercisers (N = 520) completed an exploratory questionnaire on their beliefs related to diet and exercise. In Study 2 (N = 380), the factor structure of the newly developed scale was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a test–retest (N = 166) was used to confirm reliability and stability. In sum, the Diet-Related Beliefs of Exercisers Scale with its four subscales (“Refrain from Eating,” “Food as Reward,” “Healthy Eating,” and “Nutritional Replenishment”) represents a valid and reliable measure of exercisers’ diet-related beliefs.

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Digest

Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Cognitive–Perceptual–Affective–Motivational Dynamics During Incremental Workload Accounting for Exertion Tolerance

Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado and Gershon Tenenbaum

Inquiry of the psychological states during the exercise experience failed to fully account for the role of motivation to adhere and the disposition of exertion tolerance (ET). The current study expands the scope of the integrated cognitive–perceptual–affective framework by measuring the motivation to sustain effort in two physical tasks and accounting for ET. Thirty male participants performed cycling and isometric handgrip tasks to assess the progression of the rating of perceived exertion, attentional focus, affective responses, and motivation to adhere, along with an incremental workload. The ET was determined by a handgrip task time to voluntary exhaustion. The findings indicated significant time effects and linear trends for perceived exertion, attentional focus, affect, and perceived arousal but not motivation to adhere during the handgrip and cycling tasks. The ET played a key role in the integrity of the model, particularly in perceptual, attentional, and affective responses. The intended model serves to stimulate new research into adaptation mechanisms.

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Attenuation of the Köhler Effect in Racially Dissimilar Partnered Exercise Reversed Using Team Identity Strategy

Tayo Moss, Stephen Samendinger, Norbert L. Kerr, Joseph Cesario, Alan L. Smith, Deborah J. Johnson, and Deborah L. Feltz

The authors describe two research experiments exploring the influence of race on the Köhler motivation gain effect with exercise tasks. Experiment 1 tested whether partner racial dissimilarity affects individual performance. Experiment 2 created a team identity recategorization intervention to potentially counter the influence on performance observed in Experiment 1. White male participants were partnered with either a Black or Asian partner (Experiment 1) or with a Black partner utilizing team names and shirt colors as a team identity recategorization strategy (Experiment 2). Racially dissimilar dyads completed two sets of abdominal plank exercises with a Köhler conjunctive task paradigm (stronger partner; team performance outcome dependent upon the weaker-ability participant’s performance). The results of Experiment 1 suggest attenuation of the previously successful group motivation gain effect in the racially dissimilar condition. The simple recategorization strategy utilized in Experiment 2 appeared to reverse motivation losses under conjunctive-task conditions in racially dissimilar exercise dyads.

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Volume 43 (2021): Issue 1 (Feb 2021)