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Measuring the Concurrent Validity of the Athletic Skills Track Using Expert Judgment

Johanna E.A. Brocken, John van der Kamp, Rene Wormhoudt, Matthieu L. Lenoir, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

Purpose: The aim of this study is to measure the concurrent validity of the Athletic Skills Track (AST) by examining whether its outcome score correlates with the holistic judgments of experts about the quality of movement. Method: Video recordings of children performing the AST were shown to physical education teachers who independently gave a holistic rating of the movement quality of each child. Results: Both intra- and interrater reliability of the teachers’ ratings were moderate to good. The holistic judgments on movement quality were significantly correlated with AST time, showing that higher ratings were associated with less time required to complete the track. Next, hierarchical stepwise regression indicated that in addition to the holistic rating, also age, but not gender, explained part of the variance in AST time. Conclusion: The findings show that the AST has good concurrent validity and provides a fast, indirect indication for quality of movement.

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Erratum. Understanding Physical Education Teachers’ Help-Seeking Behaviors in a Facebook Professional Learning Community

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Understanding Physical Education Teachers’ Help-Seeking Behaviors in a Facebook Professional Learning Community

Xiuye Xie and Yung-Ju Chen

Purpose: Social media has become a popular platform for forming professional learning communities (PLCs) for educators. However, few studies have been conducted to understand physical educators’ behaviors in these social media-based PLCs. This study aimed to investigate physical educators’ help-seeking behaviors in a social media-based PLC on Facebook. Method: A case study was conducted to explore physical educators’ help-seeking behaviors. A total of 4,323 posts were collected and analyzed using content analysis procedures. Both descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed. Findings: More than half (51.45%) of posts published in this Facebook PLC aimed to seek help. Six themes reflecting the types of help that physical educators sought were generated: teaching ideas and materials, equipment and technology, classroom management and discipline, extracurricular event and program development, career and professional development, and social and emotional support. Conclusion: The findings suggest that social media-based PLCs can provide physical educators at all levels opportunities to seek help.

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Pedagogical Practices Among Teachers of Different Demographics and Dispositions Toward Change: Results of a Multi-Region Survey of U.S. Physical Educators

Ben D. Kern, Wesley J. Wilson, Paul Malinowski, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: To examine the current pedagogical practices among physical educators with different dispositions toward the change process and belonging to different demographic categories. We hypothesized that change-disposed, nonchange-disposed, and neutral change disposition teachers, along with teachers of different gender identities and student grade level(s), implement “best practices” with differing frequencies. Methods: Eight hundred thirty U.S. physical educators completed the Teacher Change Questionnaire-Physical Education and a 15-item adaption of Society of Health and Physical Educators America’s 20 Indicators of Effective Physical Education Instruction. Results: Nonchange-disposed teachers more frequently provided objective-related feedback, provided assessment for differentiation and summative evaluation, ensured 50% student moderate to vigorous physical activity during physical education classes, and set student learning goals than change-disposed or neutral change disposition teachers. Female and elementary teachers reported more frequent use of written curriculum and assigned grades based on student knowledge/skill assessment than male and secondary counterparts. Discussion: Continuing professional development initiatives should be designed with consideration given to change disposition, gender identity, and grade level.

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Mercury and Motion: The Influence of Seasonality on Off-School Hours High School Facility Use

Shannon C. Mulhearn, Hyeonho Yu, Hans van der Mars, Janelle M. Griffo, and Pamela H. Kulinna

Purpose: Grounded in the behavioral ecological model, and to address a lack of park space, this study looked at community members’ use of public high school physical activity (PA) facilities during nonschool hours while considering the effects of seasonality. Method: Data included 3,959 observation sweeps across 19 public high school campuses over 1 year (all seasons) in Arizona. Results: Differences in contextual supports were evident between seasons, with facilities being more accessible, usable, and lighted in spring than summer or fall. Accessible facilities were most often outside (68.6% of the time). The highest frequency of sedentary behavior was in summer. Conclusion: The present study expands our understanding about the influence of seasonality as related to community access to PA facilities. During times of extreme temperatures, it may be beneficial to find ways to make indoor PA facilities more accessible to support increased PA levels of community members.

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Physical Activity and Fitness Markers of Male Campers Participating in a Fitness-Based Sport Education Season

Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Clay Camic

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine health-related fitness levels and physical activity trends of adolescents participating in a fitness-based sport education season in a camp setting. Method: This study was conducted in a residential summer camp. Participants were 71 male campers. Participants were categorized into two groups (i.e., Healthy or Needs Improvement-Needs Improvement Health Risk [NI/NI-Health Risk]). Physical activity and health-related fitness measures were assessed. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 mixed-factorial analyses of variance and follow-up t tests when appropriate. Results: Findings indicated significant decreases in body mass index for both groups with greater decreases for the NI/NI-Heath Risk group. Both groups increased for push-ups, sit-ups, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run Test scores with greater improvements in the NI/NI-Health Risk group. Discussion/Conclusion: Youth amassed elevated levels of physical activity during each lesson and achieved significant improvements to muscle strength, cardiovascular endurance, and body mass index. The NI/NI-Health Risk group revealed significant improvements compared to their healthy counterparts.

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Volume 41 (2022): Issue 2 (Apr 2022): JTPE Special Issue: Black Scholarship in Physical Education

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Preparing Preservice Teachers via Teaching Methods Courses: A Literature Review

Fei Wu, Ashley Phelps, Michael Hodges, Xin Zhang, Xiaofen D. Keating, and Yiqiong Zhang

Purpose: To review past research on teaching methods courses with preservice physical education teachers and preservice elementary classroom teachers. Method: This study was guided by the 2017 National Standards for Initial Physical Education Teacher Education. A thorough literature search was conducted using online databases, and a total of 28 articles were selected for review. Results: About two thirds of the reviewed studies were related to elementary methods courses, and 10.7% of the studies were quantitative. Perceptions and confidence in teaching physical education were the focus of studies for preservice elementary classroom teachers, while pedagogical knowledge development and restructuring was the primary emphasis for preservice physical education teachers via elementary methods course. Research on the secondary methods course yielded no salient themes. Conclusions: Research on the topic has been incongruent with the national standards. More experimental and quantitative studies are needed in the future.

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A 2-Year Evaluation of Professional Development Workshops Focused on Physical Education and School Physical Activity

Brian Dauenhauer, Jennifer M. Krause, Dannon G. Cox, Katie L. Hodgin, Jaimie McMullen, and Russell L. Carson

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of 1-day workshops on teachers’ knowledge, practices, and dispositions using known characteristics of quality professional development and Guskey’s five levels of professional development evaluation. Method: Eight workshops were evaluated over a 2-year period using pre/post surveys, end-of-workshop surveys, observations, interviews, and artifacts. Results: Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and trainer effectiveness scores at the end of workshops. Statistical analyses revealed improvements in four of six outcome variables 4 weeks after workshop completion: self-reported knowledge, utilization of implementation strategies, presence of a community of continued learning, and teacher efficacy. Qualitative data corroborated these results but offered mixed evidence of teacher implementation and improved student outcomes. Discussion/Conclusion: Findings confirm that 1-day workshops aligned with characteristics of quality professional development are highly valued by participants and can improve teachers’ knowledge and efficacy, but teacher practice and student learning may be more difficult to influence and document.

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Erratum: Cheng et al. (2021)